B.In the Treaty of Paris, signed in March 1856, Russia was forced to give upBessarabia at the mouth of the Danube and accept the neutrality of the Black Sea.C.In addition, the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia were placed under the protection of the 5 great powers.
The Crimean war proved costly to both sides.
More people would have died if it were not for Florence Nightingale, who insistedon strict sanitary conditions and made nursing a respectable profession.
The Crimean war broke up long-standing European power relationships and effectivelydestroyed the Concert of Europe.A.Austria and Russia were now enemies b/c of Austria’s unwillingness to supportRussia in the war.B.Russia withdrew from European affairs for the next 20 years.C.Great Britain, disillusioned by its role in the war, also pulled back from Continentalaffairs.D.Austria, paying the price for its neutrality, was now w/o friends among the great powers.E.Not until the 1870s were new combinations formed to replace those that haddisappeared, and in the meantime, the European international situation remainedfluid.
Leaders who were willing to pursue the “politics of reality” found themselves in asituation rife w/opportunity. It was this new international situation that made possiblethe unification of Italy and Germany.
National Unification: Italy and Germany
I.The breakdown of the Concert of Europe opened the way for the Italians and theGermans to establish national states.A.Their successful unifications transformed the power structure of the Europeancontinent.The Unification of Italy
In 1850, Austria was still the dominant power on the Italian peninsula. After the failure of the revolution on 1848-9, a growing number of advocates for Italian unification focusedon the northern Italian state if Piedmont as their best hope to achieve this goal, which wasruled by the house of Savoy.
The little state seemed unlikely to supply the needed leadership, however, until thenew king, Victor Emmanuel II, named Count Camillo di Cavour as his primeminister.The Leadership of Cavour
Cavour was a moderate who favored constitutional government.A.After becoming prime minister in 1852, he pursued a policy of economic expansion,encouraging the building of roads, canals, and railroads fostering business enterprise by expanding credit and stimulating investment in new industries.
The growth of the Piedmontese economy and the subsequent increase in governmentrevenues enabled Cavour to pour money into a large army.
Cavour had no illusions about Piedmont’s military strength and was well aware that hecould not challenge Austria directly. He would need the French.
In 1858, Cavour came to an agreement w/Napoleon III.
The emperor agreed to ally w/Piedmont in driving the Austrians out of Italy. Oncethe Austrians were driven out, Italy would be reorganized. Piedmont would beextended into the kingdom of Upper Italy.
In compensation for its efforts, France would receive the Piedmontese provinces of Nice and Savoy.
A kingdom of Central Italy would be created for Napoleon’s cousin, Prince Napoleon, who would be married to the daughter of King Victor Emmanuel.