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Gh. Buzdugan, L. Fetcu, M. Rades - Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity

Gh. Buzdugan, L. Fetcu, M. Rades - Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity

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The papers presents various definitions of the dynamic modulus of elasticity and methods for its measurement
The papers presents various definitions of the dynamic modulus of elasticity and methods for its measurement

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: rades3702 on Mar 31, 2011
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03/23/2014

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SAVEZINZENJERAITEHNICARA
JUGOSLOVENSKODRUSTVOZAMEHANIKU
G.Buzddugan,L.Fetcu
i
M.Rades
>
PHYSICALSIGNIFICATIONANDMEASUREMENTMETHODSOFTHEDYNAMICMODULUSOFELASTICITY
(IZKNJIGEZBORNIKRADOVAIXJUGO-SLOVENSKOGKONGRESAZARACIONALNUIPRIMENJENUMEHANIKU)
Split,3-8.VI1968.
 
G.BUZDUGAN,*L.FETCUandM.RADE~**-Bucuresti
PHYSICALSIGNIFICATIONANDMEASUREMENTMETHODSOFTHEDYNAMICMODULUSOFELASTICITY
1.
Introduction
Themodulusofelasticity,definedasaconnectingfactorbetweenstressandstrain,appearsastheoldestrelationshipofthemechanics
OJ
deformablesolids-Hooke'slaw-andisusuallydeterminedbythetensileorcompressiontestofaspecimen.Experimentshaveshownthat,undertheeffectofagivenstress,thereversiblestramitselfvaries
with
time.ThismeansthatthemodulusofelasticityisnotaunivocaUydeter-minedconstant,afactrequiringthatacertai.ndurationforthetensiletestbespecified,i.e.arateofloading.Invibrationphenomena,theloadsareappliedatacertainrate,
the
maximumvaluesofwhicharedependentontrequency.Consequently,theequationsdescribingvibrationsevidentlyincludeelasticmodulicorres-pondingtovibrationfrequencies.Theuseinvibrationproblemsotthemodulusofelasticityestablishedfromstatictestsleadstoresultswhicharenotinagreementwiththemeasurements.Theexposedreasonsre-quirethatanothermodulusofelasticitythanthestaticoneshouldbeusedinvibrationtheory;itiscalled
dynamicmodulusofelasticity.
Thispaperisanattempttoachievea
synthesis
ofthevariousdefini-tionsofthedynamicmodulusofelasticity,establishingrelationshipsamongthemandpointingouttheproblemswhere,inonewayoranother,theuseofthedynamicmodulusofelasticityisanecessity.Finally,themethodsareexaminedfordeterminingthedynamicmodulusofelasticityspecifictothetheoryofvibrationsandnumericalvaluespublishedintheliteraturearegiventogetherwithanumberofvaluesestablishedexperi-mentallybytheauthors.Generally,theintroductionoftheconceptofdynamicmodulusofelasticityisaconsequenceoftheexistenceof»inelastic«phenomena.Owingtothevariousstructuresofrealsolidbodies,thecharacterandthephysicalmechanismofinelasticphenomenapresentagreatvariety.Amongthecausesofinelasticbehaviorthefollowingarequoted[2,71,79]:
*
CorrespondingMemberoftheAcademyoftheSocialistRepublicofRomania.**PolytechnicInstitute»GheorgheGhecrghiu-De,
Bucuresti,
 
350
G,
Buzdugan,
L,Fetcu
and
M,
Rades
a.Forpolycrystallinematerials(steel,brass,aluminiumetc.):localplasticdeformationsofthecrystallinegrains,viscousbehaviorofthegrainboundaries,atomicdiffusion,arrangementofthestructureunderstress,dislocationmovements,magneticdiffusion;b.Foramorphousmaterials(concrete,wood,rocks);infiltrations
in
pores,microcracks,nonhomogeneousdeformationsowingtoanisotropy(i.e.infibrousmaterials);c.Forplastics,especiallyhighpolymers:breacking-connectingreac-tionsofthemolecularchains,changesunderstressinthe
»
sticks
«,
»hooklets«and»balls«configurations,theBrownianmotion,relativeslidingofthemolecules;d.Forsoils:compactifiationandtheeffectofmoisture.Takingintoaccounttheoveralleffectofthesesourcesofinelasticity,thematerialsmaybeformallydividedinto:1.viscoelasticmaterials:highpolymers,metalsunderlowstresses";2.elastoplasticmaterials:metalsatintermediatestresslevelsandatroomtemperature;3.viscoelastoplasticmaterials:metalsathighlevelsofstress(orrateofloading)andhightemperatures,nonmetals,rocks,soils,etc.Inthefollowingwewillconfineourselfonlytothefirsttwogroupsofmaterials,stressbeinglaidonthefirstofthem.Ofcourse,thegroupingislimited,implyingcertainrestrictions.Thebehaviorofmaterialsatveryhighratesofloading(impacttesting)orexcitedinhighamplitudevibra-tionisoutsidethescopeofthepresentwork.Inordertosimplifythesynthesis,thedifferentelasticmoduliwillbedenotedbyM,whichrepre-sents-asthecasemaybe-theYoung'smodulusEortheshearmodulus
G,
2.Thedynamicelasticmodulusofviscoelasticmaterials
2.1.Definitionsbasedonthethermicrelaxationtheory
Atensiletestcanbeimaginedinwhichthemeasurementsofthede-formationsaremadebeforeaheattransferbetweenthetestspecimenandtheenvironmenttakesplace.Forthistypeoftestan
adiabaticelasticmodulus
[36],calledalsothe
unrelaxedelasticmodulus
(Mu)
[79]maybedefined,correspondingtothestrain
eo
inFig.
1.
($
Mad=-
=tan~.
eo
(1)
If
thesampletakesaftertesttheambienttemperature,thestrainbecomes
E
andan
isothermicelasticmodulus
[36]or
relaxedelasticmo-dulus(M
F)
[79]maybedefined:
(2)
*
Accordingto[71]:lowstressesa~0,01
0-1
intermediatestresses0.01
0-1
<
<0<0,50_1>
highstresses
0,5
0-1
<0,
where
0_1
isthefatiguelimit.

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