•HUNTINGTON’S POSTULATES, TRUTH TABLES, AND GRAPHIC SYMBOLS61
One of the easiest ways to begin to work with Huntington
s postulates is to con-centrate on only one of the postulates from each of the first five groups.To makesome sense out of each postulate,we can think of them as follows:
are in B,then
is in B.This simply means that
can only take on the values 0 or 1,and the operation
(logical addition as yetundefined) which appears to link the two must result in a value that is only 0 or 1.When we define the operation
a little later,this postulate must remain true forthe definition of the operation
to be a valid definition.The operation
There is an element 0 such that
for every variable
.No dif-ference here from normal algebra,only remember that
is a logical addition notan arithmetic addition
(commutative with respect to
).Again,this is the sameas in normal algebra.
is distributive over
).Notice that we choseto look at the (b) part first rather than the (a)part,since the (b)part is the sameas normal algebra.You may notice that the (a) part is not like normal algebra.Inother words,postulate P4b shows that multiplying out a factored
(see Definition 2.2.1) or factoring an expression is conceptually thesame in Boolean algebra as it is in normal algebra.
For every variable
there is a variable (called the
)such that a:Recall the expression
which you mem-orized in normal algebra.Now you need to commit to memory the expression
in Boolean algebra.The value of
2.2.2DEFINITION OF: AN EXPRESSION, A LITERAL, AND A HIERARCHYOF BINARY OPERATORS
,is (a)a con-stant such as 1 or 0 (also called identity elements),(b)a single Boolean variablesuch as
,(c) the complement of a single Boolean variable such asor or (d)one or more variables and/or constants used in combination with oneor more binary operators such as
is a single variable or a complement of a sin-gle variable such as:
order of precedence
hierarchy of the binaryoperators
used in Boolean algebra is:the
).The complement operator has the most precedence while theOR operator has the least.
( ) may be used as in ordinary algebra ei-ther to maintain or to circumvent operator hierarchy.
2.2.3PRINCIPLE OF DUALITY
To obtain the alternate postulate from each of the five groups of Huntington
spostulates we use the
Principle of Duality
as stated in Definition 2.2.4.
Principle of Duality
is being applied to obtainthe
of a Boolean expression when both the identity elements (0 and 1) and