CHAPTER

2

CHAPTER OUTLINE

2.1

Boolean Algebra LandmarkPublications and Prominent People

2.2

Huntington’s Postulates,Truth Tables,and GraphicSymbols

2.3

Boolean Algebra Theorems

2.4

Canonical or Standard Formsof Functions

2.5

Function Minimization

2.6

Worked Exercises

Boolean Algebra, Functions,and Minimization

We first mention some landmark publications and also some prominent peoplethat have helped shape the digital field that you are going to study.Huntington’spostulates then provide you with the foundation of Boolean algebra.Truth tablesand graphic symbols help round out the presentation.Boolean algebra theoremsare presented to help us simplify Boolean expressions.Functions are written withthe aid of canonical or standard forms.In the final section K-maps are presentedto allow us to minimize functions.

2.1BOOLEAN ALGEBRA LANDMARK PUBLICATIONSAND PROMINENT PEOPLE

2.1.1BOOLE’S LAWS OF THOUGHT

In 1854 British mathematician George Boole published the book

An Investiga-tion of The Laws of Thought

,in which he introduced the mathematical methodsfor two-valued algebra.Today we honor him by referring to two-valued algebra asBoolean algebra,even though the first systematic treatment of such problems wassupposedly found in the writings of Aristotle.

2.1.2HUNTINGTON’S FIRST SET OF POSTULATES

In 1904,H.E.Huntington published several sets of independent postulates forBoolean algebra in his paper “Sets of Independent Postulates for the Algebra of Logic.”Huntington’s postulates are used in this text as the foundation or corner-stone of Boolean algebra.Boolean algebra can be developed from other sets of pos-tulates,but we will use Huntington’s first set.

2.1.3SHANNON’S SYMBOLIC ANALYSIS OF SWITCHING CIRCUITS

In 1938 Claude Shannon published a paper entitled “A Symbolic Analysis of RelaySwitching Circuits,”summarizing his work as a research assistant on his master’s de-gree at M.I.T.(Massachusetts Institute of Technology).In his paper Shannon showedhow to use Boolean algebra to implement relay-switching circuits.The concepts heproposed allow us to implement all types of switching circuits from high-power butrelatively slow relay-switching circuits to low-power but extremely fast electronicswitching circuits.In this text our emphasis is on electronic switching circuits.

2.1.4OTHER PROMINENT PEOPLE

In addition to the landmark publications cited above,many other prominent peoplehave made notable contributions to the digital field.We list only a few here.Let usnot forget Frank Gray who worked on the code we now called Gray code.AugustusDeMorgan introduced a two-valued algebraic relationship that we call DeMorgan’sTheorem.Another two-valued algebraic relationship was introduced in Claude Shan-non’s paper,which we call Shannon’s Expansion Theorem.Veitch first introduced a

60

CHAPTER 2

•BOOLEAN ALGEBRA, FUNCTIONS, AND MINIMIZATION

P1a: If

X

and

Y

are in B, then

X

+

Y

is in B.P1b: If

X

and

Y

are in B, then

X

·

Y

is in B.P2a: There is an element 0 such that

X

+ 0 =

X

for every variable

X

.P2b: There is an element 1 such that

X

·

1 =

X

for every variable

X

.P3a:

X

+

Y

=

Y

+

X

(commutative with respect to +).P3b:

X

·

Y

=

Y

·

X

(commutative with respect to

·

).P4a:

X

+

Y

·

Z

= (

X

+

Y

)

·

(

X

+

Z

)(+ is distributive over

·

).P4b:

X

·

(

Y

+

Z)

=

X

·

Y

+

X

·

Z

(

·

is distributive over +).P5: For every variable

X

there is a variable

X

(called the complement of

X

) such thata:

X

+

X

= 1andb:

X

·

X

= 0.P6: There are at least two distinct elements in B.

Figure 2.2.1

Huntington’s first set of postulates for a two-valued Boolean algebra.

method of representing two-valued algebra via a map.Karnaugh improved on Veitch

’

sidea,and today we usually refer to the technique as a Karnaugh map or K-map.Quine introduced a tabular reduction technique to simplify two-valued alge-braic expressions.McCluskey extended Quine

’

s technique.Today we refer to it asthe Quine-McClusky reduction technique in honor of both men.We don

’

t delveinto this particular reduction technique,but its development is historic.F.E.Moore introduced a way to design sequential logic machines or digital cir-cuits with feedback.G.H.Mealy introduced an alternate method of sequential ma-chine design.Today Moore-type sequential machines and Moore outputs arenamed in honor of Moore,while Mealy-type sequential machines and Mealy out-puts are named in honor of Mealy.As you study this text you should look for thenames of the prominent people who have made major contributions to the fieldof digital logic.Also refer to the Bibliography.

2.2HUNTINGTON’S POSTULATES, TRUTH TABLES,AND GRAPHIC SYMBOLS

HuntingtonprovideduswithpostulatesthatformthebasisofBooleanalgebra.TheoperatorsinHuntington

’

spostulatesarerepresentedviatruthtablesandgraph-icsymbols.

2.2.1HUNTINGTON’S FIRST SET OF POSTULATES

When a new mathematics is introduced,certain self-evident

mathematical state-ments

or

propositions

are stated without proof and are called

postulates

,

axioms

,

premises

or

maxims

.Huntington

’

s first set of postulates provide the basic propo-sitions for defining a many-valued Boolean algebra of class

M={0,1,2,

p

n}

.The

two-valued Boolean algebra

used in this text is based on

Huntington’s first set of postulates

for a Boolean algebra of class

B={0, 1}

.These postulates use

vari-ables

such as

X

,

Y

,and

Z

and the constants 0 and 1 (often called the

identity ele-ments

,since variables combined with these elements in certain cases leave thevariables unchanged.These postulates also use three undefined

binary operators

represented by the symbols

±

,

,and We will accept Huntington

’

s first set of pos-tulates as true and thus use them as the foundation for defining two-valued Booleanalgebra.The operations represented by the symbols ( ) and

=

are the same as innormal algebra (the algebra that deals with real numbers).(See Fig.2.2.1.)

.

SECTION 2.2

•HUNTINGTON’S POSTULATES, TRUTH TABLES, AND GRAPHIC SYMBOLS61

One of the easiest ways to begin to work with Huntington

’

s postulates is to con-centrate on only one of the postulates from each of the first five groups.To makesome sense out of each postulate,we can think of them as follows:

P1a:

If

X

and

Y

are in B,then

X+Y

is in B.This simply means that

X

and

Y

can only take on the values 0 or 1,and the operation

+

(logical addition as yetundefined) which appears to link the two must result in a value that is only 0 or 1.When we define the operation

+

a little later,this postulate must remain true forthe definition of the operation

+

to be a valid definition.The operation

+

is calledan

OR

operation.

P2a:

There is an element 0 such that

X+0=X

for every variable

X

.No dif-ference here from normal algebra,only remember that

is a logical addition notan arithmetic addition

.

P3a:

X+Y=Y+X

(commutative with respect to

±

).Again,this is the sameas in normal algebra.

P4b:

X

(Y+Z)=X

Y+X

Z

(

is distributive over

±

).Notice that we choseto look at the (b) part first rather than the (a)part,since the (b)part is the sameas normal algebra.You may notice that the (a) part is not like normal algebra.Inother words,postulate P4b shows that multiplying out a factored

Booleanexpression

(see Definition 2.2.1) or factoring an expression is conceptually thesame in Boolean algebra as it is in normal algebra.

P5:

For every variable

X

there is a variable (called the

complement

of

X

)such that a:Recall the expression

“

(number)

0

=

1

”

which you mem-orized in normal algebra.Now you need to commit to memory the expression

“ ”

in Boolean algebra.The value of

X

is immaterial.

2.2.2DEFINITION OF: AN EXPRESSION, A LITERAL, AND A HIERARCHYOF BINARY OPERATORS

DEFINITION2.2.1

A

Boolean expression

,denoted as

exp

,is (a)a con-stant such as 1 or 0 (also called identity elements),(b)a single Boolean variablesuch as

X

,

Y

,or

Z

,(c) the complement of a single Boolean variable such asor or (d)one or more variables and/or constants used in combination with oneor more binary operators such as

X+Y

Z, X+1

,or

DEFINITION2.2.2

A

literal

is a single variable or a complement of a sin-gle variable such as:

X, Y

,

STOP

,

CLR

,

Z

,and

DEFINITION2.2.3

The

order of precedence

or

hierarchy of the binaryoperators

used in Boolean algebra is:the

complement

followed by

AND

(

),followed by

OR

(

±

).The complement operator has the most precedence while theOR operator has the least.

Parentheses

( ) may be used as in ordinary algebra ei-ther to maintain or to circumvent operator hierarchy.

2.2.3PRINCIPLE OF DUALITY

To obtain the alternate postulate from each of the five groups of Huntington

’

spostulates we use the

Principle of Duality

as stated in Definition 2.2.4.

DEFINITION2.2.4

The

Principle of Duality

is being applied to obtainthe

dual

of a Boolean expression when both the identity elements (0 and 1) and

(

),Z.CLR,STOP,Y,X,
X

X.Z,X,

Y,X

+

X

=

1X

+

X

=

1.X