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Libyan Armed Forces in January 2011 According to Wikipedia

Libyan Armed Forces in January 2011 According to Wikipedia

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Libyan Armed Forces
ا ا تاوا
 
in January 2011 according to Wikipedia
 
 
Libyan Armed Forces
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Founded
1951
Service branches
Libyan Navy Libyan Air Force Libyan ArmyPeople's Militia
[
citation needed 
 
]
 
 
Headquarters
Tripoli
 
 
Guide of theRevolution
Muammar al-Gaddafi
 
Conscription
18 months
Available formilitary service
2,000,000, age 15–49
Active personnel
119,000
Reserve personnel
195,000
Deployed personnel
200Central African Republic 
 
Foreign suppliers
Russia China Brazil 
HistoryMilitary history of Libya 
1969 Coup d'etat Yom Kippur War  Libyan-Egyptian War  
 
Uganda-Tanzania War  Gulf of Sidra incidents Chadian–Libyan conflict Libyan Civil War   The
LibyanArmed Forces
constitute the state defence organisation of Libya. They consist of theLibyan Army,Libyan Air Force  and theLibyan Navywith other services which include the People's Militia, and the rebels fighting in Libya. The total number of Libyan personnel was estimated at 119,000,
[
citation needed 
 
]
though the2011 Libyan uprisinghas sliced the military's numbers. There is noseparate defence ministry; all defence activities are centralised under the presidency. Arms production is limited and manufacturersare state-owned.
[1]
ColonelAbu-Bakr Yunis Jaber is the chief of the staff of the military.
[
citation needed 
 
]
The roots of the contemporaryLibyan armed forces can be traced to the Libyan Arab Force (popularly known as the Sanusi Army) of World War II.
[2]
Shortly after Italy entered the war, a number of Libyan leaders living in exile in Egypt called on their compatriots to organise themselves intomilitary units and join the British in the war against the Axis powers. Five battalions, which were initially designed for guerrillawarfare in theAl Jabal al Akhdar region of Cyrenaica
 
, were established under British command. Because the high mobility of thedesert campaigns required a considerable degree of technical and mechanical expertise, the Libyan forces were used primarily asauxiliaries, guarding military installations and prisoners. One battalion, however, participated in the fighting atTobruk . After Britainsucceeded in occupying the Libyan territories, the need for the British-trained and equipped Sanusi troops appeared to be over. TheSanusi Army was reluctant to disband, however, and the majority of its members arranged to be transferred to the local police force inCyrenaica under the British military administration. When Libya gained its independence in 1951, veterans of the original SanusiArmy formed the nucleus of the Royal Libyan Army.British Armytroops, part of Middle East Commandand comprising 25th Armoured Brigade and briefly10th Armoured Division
 
, were still present after independence and stayed in Libya until at least 1957.
Army
Main article:Libyan Army 
The current strength of the Libyan Army consists of 25,000 volunteers with an additional ε25,000conscripts (total 50,000). The army is organised into 11 Border Defence and 4 Security Zones, one regime security brigade, 10 Tank Battalions, 10 Mechanized Infantry Battalions, 18 Infantry Battalions, 6 Commando Battalions, 22 Artillery Battalions, 4 SSMBrigade and 7 Air Defence Artillery Battalions.
[3] 
In 2009, it emerged that a BritishSpecial Air Serviceteam were training Libyanspecial forces.
[4]
Khamis al-Qadhafi's 32nd Brigade is one of the main regime protection forces. The 'Khamis Brigade' is consideredby U.S. diplomats as the most capable of defending the regime.
[5] 
Though the Libyan army has a large amount of fighting equipmentat its disposal, the vast majority was bought from theSoviet Unionin the '70s and '80s and is largely obsolete. A high percentageremains in storage and a large amount of equipment has also been sold to various African countries. No major purchases of equipmenthave been made in recent years largely due to the decline of the economy and military sanctions experienced throughout the nineties.This and various other internal factors has seriously decayed the strength of the whole of the Libyan Armed Forces over the years andit has lagged behind its major neighbors in terms of its military capabilities and real war fighting capability. Libya dispatched acontingent to theArab Deterrent Forcein Lebanon in 1976 as theLebanese Civil War escalated.
[6]
In the spring of 1979, after theArab League had extended the mandate of the Arab Deterrent Force, theSudanese, the Saudis and theUAEtroops departed Lebanon, the Libyan troops were essentially abandoned and had to find their own way home, if at all. From the late seventies to the mid to lateeighties the army was involved in four major incursions into Chadian Territory. The Libyan Army suffered great losses in theseconflicts especially that of theToyota War of 1987 largely due to poor tactics and western aid to Chad. All of these incursions wereeventually repulsed and Libya no longer occupiesChad. This conflict was known as theChadian-Libyan conflict. The Libyan ground forces have a large amount of mostly Soviet equipment in service. The IISS estimated tank numbers in 2009 as 2,025: 200T-72; 115in store; 100T-62; 70 in store; 500T-55; 1,040 T-54/T-55 in store. The IISS estimated there were 50 BRDM-2 and 70 EE-9 Cascavel reconnaissance vehicles, 1,000 BMP-1s, plus BMDs.
[7]
Russian official sources reported in 2010 that T-72s would be modernisedwith help from Russia.
[8]
750BTR-50andBTR-60swere also reported by the IISS. Other reported wheeled vehicles in service include 100EE-11 Urutu, and Czechoslovak OT-64 SKOT.
[9] 
The IISS estimated artillery in service in 2009 as totaling 2,421 pieces.444 SP artillery pieces were reported; 122mm 1302S1Carnation; 152mm 140: 602S3 Akatsiya; 80M-77 Dana; 155mm 174: 14 M- 109; 160 VCA 155Palmaria. 647+ towed artillery pieces were reported: 105mm 42+ M-101; 122mm 250: 190D-30; 60 D-74; 130mm 330M-46; 152mm 25 M-1937. 830Multiple rocket launcherswere reported: an estimated 300 107mm Type-63; 122mm 530:
 
ε200 BM-11; ε230BM-21 Grad; ε100 RM-70 Dana (RM-70 multiple rocket launcher ?). The IISS also estimated that Libya had 500 mortars: 82mm 428; 120mm ε48 M-43; 160mm ε24 M-160. Surface to Surface Missiles reported in service includeFROG-7andSCUD-B, (416 missiles). Anti Tank missiles reported in service include 400 French/GermanMILAN
 
, and 620+AT-3,AT-4, andAT- 5, all of Soviet manufacture. In 2009 the IISS estimated that Libya hadCrotale,SA-7Grail,SA-9/SA-13 surface to air missiles, and AA guns in Army service. A separate Air Defence Command has SA-2, SA-3,SA-5 Gammon, andSA-8bGecko, plus guns. Reported anti aircraft artillery includes Soviet 57 mmS-60, 23 mm self-propelledZSU-23-4andZU-23-2, CzechM53/59 Praga
 
, andSwedishBofors 40mm guns. Small arms reported in service includeTT pistol,Browning Hi-Power ,Beretta M12,FN P90,FN FAL, SKS
 
,AK-47,AKMandAK-103assault rifles, theFN F2000, SovietRPDmachine gun,RPK machine gun
 
,PK machine guns
 
,DShK  heavy machine gun,KPV heavy machine guns,SG-43 Goryunov, and a number of RPG type and anti-aircraft missile systems:RPG- 2
 
,RPG-7,9K32 Strela-2.
Air & Air Defence Forces
Main article:Libyan Air Force 
The Libyan Air Force was created after the U.S. and UK pressured then-ruling King Idris to modernise his armed forces so that they could better stand off against revolutionary regimes in the Middle East.The LAF was created in 1963.
[10]
The Libyan Air Force had an estimated personnel strength of 22,000 in 2005(?). There are 13military airbases in Libya.
[11] 
After U.S. forces had left Libya in 1970,Wheelus Air Base, a previous U.S. facility about seven milesfromTripoli
 
, became a Libyan Air Force installation and was renamed Okba Ben Nafi Air Base. OBN AB housed the LPAF'sheadquarters and a large share of its major training facilities.
Jets & Bombers
 
 
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17– 22;
 
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25– 68;
 
Sukhoi Su-22– 90;The Libyan Air Force operated as many as 90 Su-22, with around 40 Su-22M3 and Su-22UM3K aircraftcurrently in service.
 
Dassault Mirage III– 8;The Libyan Air Defence Force is part of the Air Force and has the second largest defence network in region (second to Egypt).However the equipment – which is mainly Soviet weaponry from the 60s and 70s – is outdated and during the1986 bombing of Libya by the US air force it proved inefficient. Only one of the 45 attacking US aircraft was shot down. Due to an embargo during the 1980sthe system could not be upgraded following the US attack.
[12]
 
Surface-to-Air Missiles include:
 
 
Lavochkin SA-2 Guideline – 300;
 
Isayev SA-3 Goa – 250;
 
Almaz SA-5 Gammon – 380;
 
S-200 missile systems – 70;
 
9K38 Igla– 380;
 
9K34 Strela-3– 278;
 
ZSU-23-4Shilka – 200;
 
ZSU-57-2– 75;
 
2K12 Kub- 50;[1] 
Navy
TheLibyan Navyis the maritime force of Libya, established in November 1962. It is a fairly typical small navy with a fewmissilefrigates
 
,corvettesandpatrol boatsto defend the coastline, but with a very limited self-defence capability. The Navy has always been the smallest of Libya's services and has always been dependent on foreign sources for equipment, spare parts, andtraining. The total personnel of the Libyan Navy is about 8,000. Its firstwarshipwas delivered in 1966. Initially the effective forcewas limited to smaller vessels, but this changed after the rise of ColonelMuammar al-Gaddafiin 1969. From this time, Libya startedto buy armaments from Europe and theSoviet Union. TheCustomsandHarbour policewere amalgamated with the Navy in 1970, extending the Navy's mission to include anti-smuggling and customs duties. Originally Libya received six submarines from the Sovietunion in 1982, but it is very unlikely that the submarines are still operational.
Paramilitary forcesPan-African Legion
In about 1980,Muammar Gaddafiintroduced the IslamicPan-African Legion, a body of mercenariesrecruited primarily among dissidents from Sudan, Egypt, Tunisia, Mali, and Chad. West African states with Muslim populations have also beenthe source of some personnel. Believed to consist of about 7,000 individuals, the force has received training from experiencedPalestinian and Syrian instructors. Some of those recruited to the legion were said to have been forcibly impressed from amongnationals of neighboring countries who migrated to Libya in search of work.
[
citation needed 
 
]
According to the Military Balance publishedby theInternational Institute for Strategic Studies, the force was organized into one armored, one infantry, and oneparatroop/commando brigade. It has been supplied with T-54 and T-55 tanks, armored personnel carriers, and EE-9 armored cars. TheIslamic Pan-African Legion was reported to have been committed during the fighting in Chad in 1980 and was praised by Gaddafi for its success there. However, it was believed that many of the troops who fled the Chadian attacks of March 1987 were members of theLegion.
[13]
 
Islamic Arab Legion
In an effort to realize Gaddafi's vision of a united Arab military force, plans for the creation of an Islamic ArabLegion have been announced from time to time. The goal, according to the Libyan press, would be to assemble an army of onemillion men and women fighters to prepare for the great Arab battle – “the battle of liberating Palestine, of toppling the reactionaryregimes, of annihilating the borders, gates, and barriers between the countries of the Arab homeland, and of creating the single ArabJamahiriya from the ocean to the gulf”. In March 1985, it was announced that the National Command of the Revolutionary ForcesCommand in the Arab Nation had been formed with Qadhafi at its head. A number of smaller radical Arab groups from Lebanon,Tunisia, Sudan, Iraq, the Persian Gulf states, and Jordan were represented at the inaugural meeting. Syrian Baath Party and radicalPalestinian factions were also present. Each of these movements was expected to earmark 10 percent of its forces for service under thenew command. As of April 1987, there was no information confirming the existence of such a militia.
[13]
 
People’s Militia
The mission of the 45,000 People's Militia was territorial defence, and it was to function under the leadership of local military commanders. Qadhafi contended that it was the People's Militia that met the Egyptian incursions during the border clashof 1977, although the Egyptians insisted that their successful raids had been contested by regular army units. The militia forces are not

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