, were still present after independence and stayed in Libya until at least 1957.
Main article:Libyan Army
The current strength of the Libyan Army consists of 25,000 volunteers with an additional ε25,000conscripts (total 50,000). The army is organised into 11 Border Defence and 4 Security Zones, one regime security brigade, 10 Tank Battalions, 10 Mechanized Infantry Battalions, 18 Infantry Battalions, 6 Commando Battalions, 22 Artillery Battalions, 4 SSMBrigade and 7 Air Defence Artillery Battalions.
In 2009, it emerged that a BritishSpecial Air Serviceteam were training Libyanspecial forces.
Khamis al-Qadhafi's 32nd Brigade is one of the main regime protection forces. The 'Khamis Brigade' is consideredby U.S. diplomats as the most capable of defending the regime.
Though the Libyan army has a large amount of fighting equipmentat its disposal, the vast majority was bought from theSoviet Unionin the '70s and '80s and is largely obsolete. A high percentageremains in storage and a large amount of equipment has also been sold to various African countries. No major purchases of equipmenthave been made in recent years largely due to the decline of the economy and military sanctions experienced throughout the nineties.This and various other internal factors has seriously decayed the strength of the whole of the Libyan Armed Forces over the years andit has lagged behind its major neighbors in terms of its military capabilities and real war fighting capability. Libya dispatched acontingent to theArab Deterrent Forcein Lebanon in 1976 as theLebanese Civil War escalated.
In the spring of 1979, after theArab League had extended the mandate of the Arab Deterrent Force, theSudanese, the Saudis and theUAEtroops departed Lebanon,
the Libyan troops were essentially abandoned and had to find their own way home, if at all. From the late seventies to the mid to lateeighties the army was involved in four major incursions into Chadian Territory. The Libyan Army suffered great losses in theseconflicts especially that of theToyota War of 1987 largely due to poor tactics and western aid to Chad. All of these incursions wereeventually repulsed and Libya no longer occupiesChad. This conflict was known as theChadian-Libyan conflict. The Libyan ground
forces have a large amount of mostly Soviet equipment in service. The IISS estimated tank numbers in 2009 as 2,025: 200T-72; 115in store; 100T-62; 70 in store; 500T-55; 1,040 T-54/T-55 in store. The IISS estimated there were 50 BRDM-2 and 70 EE-9 Cascavel
reconnaissance vehicles, 1,000 BMP-1s, plus BMDs.
Russian official sources reported in 2010 that T-72s would be modernisedwith help from Russia.
750BTR-50andBTR-60swere also reported by the IISS. Other reported wheeled vehicles in service
include 100EE-11 Urutu, and Czechoslovak OT-64 SKOT.
The IISS estimated artillery in service in 2009 as totaling 2,421 pieces.444 SP artillery pieces were reported; 122mm 1302S1Carnation; 152mm 140: 602S3 Akatsiya; 80M-77 Dana; 155mm 174: 14 M-
109; 160 VCA 155Palmaria. 647+ towed artillery pieces were reported: 105mm 42+ M-101; 122mm 250: 190D-30; 60 D-74;
130mm 330M-46; 152mm 25 M-1937. 830Multiple rocket launcherswere reported: an estimated 300 107mm Type-63; 122mm 530: