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Table Of Contents

1. GENERAL KNOWLEDGE
1.1. INTRODUCTION
1.1.1. Importance and need of non-destructive testing
1.1.2. Basic methods for NDT of concrete structures
1.1.3. Qualification and certification
1.2. BASIC MANUFACTURING PROCESSES AND DEFECTS OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES
1.2.1. Types of concrete structures
1.2.2. Composition of concrete
1.2.3. Process of concrete manufacture
1.2.4. Properties of concrete and their control
1.2.5. Discontinuities and defects in concrete structures
1.3. TESTING OF CONCRETE
1.3.1. Quality control tests
1.3.2. Partial destructive tests
1.3.3. Other tests
1.4. COMPARISON OF NDT METHODS
1.5. QUALITY CONTROL
1.5.1. The need for quality and quality control
1.5.2. Basic definitions related to quality assurance
1.5.3. Responsibility for quality
1.5.4. Quality control applications in concrete construction
1.5.5. Quality management system
2. VISUAL INSPECTION
2.1. INTRODUCTION
2.2. TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT FOR VISUAL INSPECTION
2.3. GENERAL PROCEDURE OF VISUAL INSPECTION
2.4. APPLICATIONS OF VISUAL INSPECTION
2.5. SKETCHES OF TYPICAL DEFECTS FOUND BY VISUAL INSPECTION
3. HALF-CELL ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL METHOD
3.1. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE
3.2. EQUIPMENT FOR HALF-CELL ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL METHOD
3.3. GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR HALF-CELL ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL METHOD
3.4. APPLICATIONS OF HALF-CELL ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL TESTING METHOD
4.5. RANGE AND LIMITATIONS OF SCHMIDT REBOUND HAMMER TEST
5. CARBONATION DEPTH MEASUREMENT TEST
5.1. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE
5.2. EQUIPMENT FOR CARBONATION DEPTH MEASUREMENT TEST
5.3. GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR CARBONATION DEPTH MEASUREMENT TEST
5.4. RANGE AND LIMITATIONS OF CARBONATION DEPTH MEASUREMENT TEST
6. PERMEABILITY TEST
6.1. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE
6.2. GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR PERMEABILITY TEST
6.3. EQUIPMENT FOR PERMEABILITY TEST
6.3.1. Initial surface absorption test
6.3.2. Modified Figg permeability test
6.3.3. In situ rapid chloride ion permeability test
6.4. APPLICATIONS OF PERMEABILITY TEST
6.5. RANGE AND LIMITATIONS OF PERMEABILITY TEST
7. PENETRATION RESISTANCE OR WINDSOR PROBE TEST
7.1. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE
7.2. EQUIPMENT FOR WINDSOR PROBE TEST
7.3. GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR WINDSOR PROBE TEST
7.4. APPLICATIONS OF WINDSOR PROBE TEST
7.4.1. Formwork removal
7.4.2. As a substitute for core testing
7.5. ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF WINDSOR PROBE TEST
8. RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENT
8.1. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
8.2. EQUIPMENT
8.3. GENERAL PROCEDURE
8.4. APPLICATIONS
9. ELECTROMAGNETIC METHODS OF TESTING CONCRETE
9.1. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
9.2. EQUIPMENT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INSPECTION
9.3. GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC TESTING
9.4. APPLICATIONS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC TESTING METHOD
9.5. RANGE AND LIMITATIONS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC TESTING METHOD
9.6. WORK OR SITE CALIBRATION
10. RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING
10.1. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
10.2. EQUIPMENT FOR RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING METHOD
10.2.1. X ray equipment
10.2.2. Gamma ray sources
10.2.3. Comparison of X ray sources and gamma ray sources
10.3. GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING METHOD
10.4. EXTRACTS FROM BS1881 PART 205
10.4.1. Radiation sources
10.4.2. Type of film
10.4.3. Lead intensifying screens
10.4.4. Cassettes
10.4.5. Calculation of geometric unsharpness
10.4.6. Calculation of source-to-film distance
10.4.7. Calculation of exposure time
10.4.8. Alignment of the beam
10.4.9. Overlap of film
10.4.10. Image quality
10.5. RADIATION PROTECTION IN INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY
10.5.1. Introduction
10.5.2. Principles of radiation protection
10.5.3. Administrative requirements
10.5.4. Management requirements
10.5.5. Practical protection
10.5.6. Radiation monitoring
10.5.8. Maintenance and leak testing
10.5.9. Emergency response planning
10.5.10. Source disposal
11.1.4. Determination of pulse velocity
11.1.5. Factors influencing pulse velocity measurements
11.1.6. Detection of defects
11.1.7. Developments in ultrasonic tomography
11.2.2. Post-tensioned duct inspection
11.3. IMPACT-ECHO/RESONANCE FREQUENCY/STRESS WAVE TEST
11.3.1. Fundamental principles
11.3.2. Equipment for impact-echo testing
11.3.3. General procedure for impact-echo testing
11.3.5. Range and limitations of impact-echo testing method
11.4. RELATIVE AMPLITUDE METHOD
11.4.1. Fundamental principles
11.4.2. Equipment for relative amplitude method
11.4.3. General procedure for relative amplitude method
11.4.4. Applications of relative amplitude method
11.4.5. Range and limitations of relative amplitude method
11.5. VELOCITY VERSUS REBOUND NUMBER CURVES
11.5.1. Introduction
11.5.2. Procedure for drawing velocity-rebound number curves
12. INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY
12.3. GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR INFRARED THERMOGRAPHIC METHOD
13.1. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE
13.5. ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF GPR TECHNIQUES
13.5.1. Advantages
13.5.2. Limitations
13.7.3. Detection of delamination in concrete bridge decks
14. RADIOISOTOPE GAUGES
14.1. THICKNESS AND DENSITY GAUGES
14.1.1. Fundamental principles
14.1.2. General procedure for thickness and density gauges
14.1.3. Equipment for thickness and density gauges
14.1.4. Applications of thickness and density gauges
14.1.5. Advantages and limitations of thickness and density gauges
14.2. MOISTURE GAUGES
14.2.1. Fundamental principles
14.2.2. Applications of moisture gauges
15. OTHER METHODS OF NDT
15.2. COMPUTER TOMOGRAPHY
15.3. STRAIN SENSING
15.3.1. Mechanical gauges
15.3.2. Electrical resistance gauges
15.3.3. Acoustic gauges
15.3.4. Electrical displacement transducers
15.3.5. Other types of strain measuring devices
15.3.6. Choice of strain measuring method
16. METHODS OF SURVEY
16.2. METHODS AND INSPECTION TECHNIQUE REQUIRED
16.2.1. First survey (regular inspection)
16.2.2. Second survey (specific/particular inspection)
16.2.3. Third survey
16.3. CONCLUSION
17. CASE STUDIES
17.1.1. Field measurements, Frankfurt, Germany
17.1.2. Field measurements, Oslo, Norway
17.1.3. Conclusion
17.2.1. Trusses at Berlin Tempelhof Airport
17.2.2. Reinforcement tests
17.2.3. Summarized evaluation and outlook
17.3.1. Description of bridge
17.3.2. Inspection and assessment
17.3.3. Testing procedures
17.3.4. Digital radar testing
17.3.5. Analysis of the problem
17.3.6. UK perspective
17.3.7. Conclusions
17.4. FLYOVER
18. CODES, STANDARDS, SPECIFICATIONS AND PROCEDURES
18.1. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
18.1.1. The need for standards
18.1.2. Different categories of standards
18.2.1. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
18.2.2. British Standards Institution (BSI)
BIBLIOGRAPHY
CONTRIBUTORS TO DRAFTING AND REVIEW
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