that you can receive service assistance and updates. You can copy shareware and pass it along to friends and colleagues, but they tooare expected to pay a fee if they use the product.Shareware is inexpensive because it is usually produced by a single programmer and is offered directly to customers. Thus, there arepractically no packaging or advertising expenses.Note that shareware differs from public-domain software in that shareware is copyrighted. This means that you cannot sell a sharewareproduct as your own.OPEN SOURCE SOFTWAREOpen-source software (OSS) is computer software that is available in source code form for which the source code and certain other rightsnormally reserved for copyright holders are provided under a software license that permits users to study, change, and improve thesoftware.Some open source licenses meet the requirements of the Open Source Definition. Some open source software is available within thepublic domain.Open source software is very often developed in a public, collaborative manner. Open-source software is the most prominent example of open-source development and often compared to (technically defined) user-generated content or (legally defined) open contentmovements.FREEWAREFreeware is computer software that is available for use at no cost#########################################
2.Discuss the relationship between data and information, information and knowledge. Also explain theconcepts of cost and value of information by the help of an example.
Data is a collection of facts, figures and statistics related to an object. Data can be processed to create useful information. Data is avaluable asset for an organization.Data can be used by the managers to perform effective and successful operations of management. It provides a view of past activitiesrelated to the rise and fall of an organization. It also enables the user to make better decision for future. Data is very useful forgenerating reports, graphs and statistics.ExampleStudents fill an admission form when they get admission in college. The form consists of raw facts about the students. These raw factsare student's name, father name, address etc. The purpose of collecting this data is to maintain the records of the students during theirstudy period in the college.InformationThe manipulated and processed form of data is called information. It is more meaningful than data. It is used for making decisions. Datais used as input for processing and information I output of this processing.ExampleData collected from census is used to generate different type of information. The government can use it to determine the literacy rate inthe country. Government can use the information in important decision to improve literacy rate.knowledge as, "a fluid mix of framed experience, contextual information, values and expert insight that provides a framework forevaluating and incorporating new experiences and information." Notice that there are two parts to their definition:o First, there is content: "a fluid mix of framed experience, contextual information, values and expert insight." This includes a numberof things that we have within us, such as experiences, beliefs, values, how we feel, motivation, and information.o The second part defines the function or purpose of knowledge, "that provides a framework for evaluating and incorporating newexperiences and information." Notice how this relates back to Locke's definition — we have within us a framework (one idea) that we usefor evaluating new experiences (the second idea).Explicit knowledge can be articulated into formal language, including grammatical statements (words and numbers), mathematicalexpressions, specifications, manuals, etc. Explicit knowledge can be readily transmitted others. Also, it can easily be processed by acomputer, transmitted electronically, or stored in databases.Tacit knowledge is personal knowledge embedded in individual experience and involves intangible factors, such as personal beliefs,perspective, and the value system. Tacit knowledge is hard to articulate with formal language (hard, but not impossible). It containssubjective insights, intuitions, and hunches. Before tacit knowledge can be communicated, it must be converted into words, models, ornumbers that can be understand. In addition, there are two dimensions to tacit knowledge:o Technical Dimension (procedural): This encompasses the kind of informal and skills often captured in the term know-how. Forexample, a craftsperson develops a wealth of expertise after years of experience. But a craftsperson often has difficulty articulating thetechnical or scientific principles of his or her craft. Highly subjective and personal insights, intuitions, hunches and inspirations derivedfrom bodily experience fall into this dimension.o Cognitive Dimension: This consists of beliefs, perceptions, ideals, values, emotions and mental models so ingrained in us that we takethem for granted. Though they cannot be articulated very easily, this dimension of tacit knowledge shapes the way we perceive the worldaround us.o Socialization: from tacit to tacit — Sharing experiences to create tacit knowledge, such as shared mental models and technical skills.This also includes observation, imitation, and practice. However, “experience” is the key, which his why the mere “transfer of information” often makes little sense to the receiver.o Internalization: from explicit to tacit — Embodying explicit knowledge into tacit knowledge. Closely related to “learning by doing.” Normally, knowledge is verbalized or diagrammed into documents or oral stories.o Externalization: from tacit to explicit — The quintessential process of articulating tacit knowledge into explicit concepts throughmetaphors, analogies, concepts, hypothesis, or models. Note that when we conceptualize an image, we express its essence mostly in