Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
answerMS - 07_2011

answerMS - 07_2011

|Views: 78|Likes:
Published by rakeshpipada
gnou MBA MS-07 Information Systems for Managers assignment
gnou MBA MS-07 Information Systems for Managers assignment

More info:

Categories:Types, Research
Published by: rakeshpipada on Mar 31, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





ASSIGNMENTCourse Code : MS-07Course Title : Information Systems for ManagersAssignment No. : MS-07/SEM-I/2011Coverage : All Blocks
Note: Answer all the questions and send them to the Coordinator of the Study Centre you are attached with.1. Explain the difference between the following:a. High-Level and Low level languagesb. Applications and Utilitiesc. Shareware, Open source software, Freeware2. Discuss the relationship between data and information, information and knowledge. Also explain the concepts of cost and value of information by the help of an example.
Explain the major marketing subsystems and enumerate the advantages of the use of computers in suchsubsystems.4. Describe the significant features of each of Visual Basic, Java, HTML, Excel and COBOL briefly.5. Define decision support system in your own words. Also illustrate the concept using your organizational context.
1.explain the difference between the following:a. High-Level and Low level languagesb. Applications and Utilitiesc. Shareware, Open source software, Freeware
HIGH LEVELAn advanced computer programming language that isn't limited by the computer or for one specific job and is more easily understood.Today, there are dozens of high-level languages; some commonly used high-level languages are BASIC, C, FORTAN and Pascal.LOW LEVELa low-level programming language is a programming language that provides little or no abstraction from a computer's instruction setarchitecture. The word "low" refers to the small or nonexistent amount of abstraction between the language and machine language;because of this, low-level languages are sometimes described as being "close to the hardware."Low-level languages can be converted to machine code without using a compiler or interpreter, and the resulting code runs directly onthe processor. A program written in a low-level language can be made to run very fast, and with a very small memory footprint; anequivalent program in a high-level language will be more heavyweight. Low-level languages are simple, but are considered difficult touse, due to the numerous technical details which must be remembered.By comparison, a high-level programming language isolates the execution semantics of a computer architecture from the specification of the program, which simplifies development.Low-level programming languages are sometimes divided into two categories: first generation, and second generation.=========================================APPLICATIONthe act of putting to a special use or purpose: the application of common sense to a problem.the act of bringing something to bear; using it for a particular purpose; "he advocated the application of statistics to the problem";utilityA basic service such as electricity, gas, or water, or the company that provides such a service. Utilities are often regulated by thegovernment.SHAREWARESoftware distributed on the basis of an honor system. Most shareware is delivered free of charge, but the author usually requests thatyou pay a small fee if you like the program and use it regularly. By sending the small fee, you become registered with the producer so
that you can receive service assistance and updates. You can copy shareware and pass it along to friends and colleagues, but they tooare expected to pay a fee if they use the product.Shareware is inexpensive because it is usually produced by a single programmer and is offered directly to customers. Thus, there arepractically no packaging or advertising expenses.Note that shareware differs from public-domain software in that shareware is copyrighted. This means that you cannot sell a sharewareproduct as your own.OPEN SOURCE SOFTWAREOpen-source software (OSS) is computer software that is available in source code form for which the source code and certain other rightsnormally reserved for copyright holders are provided under a software license that permits users to study, change, and improve thesoftware.Some open source licenses meet the requirements of the Open Source Definition. Some open source software is available within thepublic domain.Open source software is very often developed in a public, collaborative manner. Open-source software is the most prominent example of open-source development and often compared to (technically defined) user-generated content or (legally defined) open contentmovements.[1]FREEWAREFreeware is computer software that is available for use at no cost#########################################
2.Discuss the relationship between data and information, information and knowledge. Also explain theconcepts of cost and value of information by the help of an example.
Data is a collection of facts, figures and statistics related to an object. Data can be processed to create useful information. Data is avaluable asset for an organization.Data can be used by the managers to perform effective and successful operations of management. It provides a view of past activitiesrelated to the rise and fall of an organization. It also enables the user to make better decision for future. Data is very useful forgenerating reports, graphs and statistics.ExampleStudents fill an admission form when they get admission in college. The form consists of raw facts about the students. These raw factsare student's name, father name, address etc. The purpose of collecting this data is to maintain the records of the students during theirstudy period in the college.InformationThe manipulated and processed form of data is called information. It is more meaningful than data. It is used for making decisions. Datais used as input for processing and information I output of this processing.ExampleData collected from census is used to generate different type of information. The government can use it to determine the literacy rate inthe country. Government can use the information in important decision to improve literacy rate.knowledge as, "a fluid mix of framed experience, contextual information, values and expert insight that provides a framework forevaluating and incorporating new experiences and information." Notice that there are two parts to their definition:o First, there is content: "a fluid mix of framed experience, contextual information, values and expert insight." This includes a numberof things that we have within us, such as experiences, beliefs, values, how we feel, motivation, and information.o The second part defines the function or purpose of knowledge, "that provides a framework for evaluating and incorporating newexperiences and information." Notice how this relates back to Locke's definition — we have within us a framework (one idea) that we usefor evaluating new experiences (the second idea).Explicit knowledge can be articulated into formal language, including grammatical statements (words and numbers), mathematicalexpressions, specifications, manuals, etc. Explicit knowledge can be readily transmitted others. Also, it can easily be processed by acomputer, transmitted electronically, or stored in databases.Tacit knowledge is personal knowledge embedded in individual experience and involves intangible factors, such as personal beliefs,perspective, and the value system. Tacit knowledge is hard to articulate with formal language (hard, but not impossible). It containssubjective insights, intuitions, and hunches. Before tacit knowledge can be communicated, it must be converted into words, models, ornumbers that can be understand. In addition, there are two dimensions to tacit knowledge:o Technical Dimension (procedural): This encompasses the kind of informal and skills often captured in the term know-how. Forexample, a craftsperson develops a wealth of expertise after years of experience. But a craftsperson often has difficulty articulating thetechnical or scientific principles of his or her craft. Highly subjective and personal insights, intuitions, hunches and inspirations derivedfrom bodily experience fall into this dimension.o Cognitive Dimension: This consists of beliefs, perceptions, ideals, values, emotions and mental models so ingrained in us that we takethem for granted. Though they cannot be articulated very easily, this dimension of tacit knowledge shapes the way we perceive the worldaround us.o Socialization: from tacit to tacit — Sharing experiences to create tacit knowledge, such as shared mental models and technical skills.This also includes observation, imitation, and practice. However, “experience” is the key, which his why the mere “transfer of information” often makes little sense to the receiver.o Internalization: from explicit to tacit — Embodying explicit knowledge into tacit knowledge. Closely related to “learning by doing.” Normally, knowledge is verbalized or diagrammed into documents or oral stories.o Externalization: from tacit to explicit — The quintessential process of articulating tacit knowledge into explicit concepts throughmetaphors, analogies, concepts, hypothesis, or models. Note that when we conceptualize an image, we express its essence mostly in
language.o Combination,: from explicit to explicit — A process of systemizing concepts into a knowledge system. Individuals exchange andcombine knowledge through media, such as documents, meetings, and conversations. Information is reconfigured by such means assorting, combining, and categorizing. Formal education and many training programs work this way.Artifacts derived from knowledge creation are facts, concepts, processes, procedures, and principles.this 'knowledge management strategy' is a training and development programme.Of course, it is wrapped up in the many of the modern jargons of the day:THE SIMPLE PROCESS IS'Development of a structure of competency types and levels;Defining the competencies required for particular jobs;Rating the performance of individual employees in particular jobs based on the competencies;Implementing the knowledge competencies in an online system;Linkage of the competency model to learning offerings.'THERE ARE MANY TOOLS AVAILABLE TO IMPLEMENTAND ENABLE THE PARTICIPANTS TO FULLY EXPLOIT.======================================================After action reviewA process that helps teams to learn quickly from their successes and failures and share their learning with other teams. Involvesconducting a structured and facilitated discussion after a task or project has been completed to review what should have happened, whatactually happened and why it happened; this allows participants to learn how to sustain strengths and improve on weaknesses insubsequent tasks or projects.Balanced scorecardA business model developed by Kaplan and Norton as a tool to measure organisational performance against both short and long-termgoals. The balanced scorecard is designed to focus managers' attention on those factors that most help the business strategy and soalongside financial measures, it adds measures for customers, internal processes and employee learning. Some organisations have usedthe balanced scorecard model in setting and measuring knowledge management strategies.BenchmarkingThe practice of comparing the performance of your organisation, department or function against the performance of 'the best' - whetherthey be other organisations, industry standards or internal departments. The aim is to look at how well you are doing compared to othersin the same field or industry, and to learn from their best practices as a basis for improving your own.Best practice (or: Good practice)A process or methodology that has been proven to work well and produce good results, and is therefore recommended as a model. Somepeople prefer to use the term 'good practice' as in reality it is debateable whether there is a single 'best' approach.CoachingA one-to-one relationship that aims to bring about individual learning and performance improvement, usually focusing on achievingpredefined objectives within a specific time period. The role of the coach is to create a supportive environment in which to challenge anddevelop the critical thinking skills, ideas and behaviours of the person being coached, so that they might reach their full potential. Relatedterm: Mentoring.Double-loop learning (or: Generative learning)In contrast to singleloop learning , which involves using knowledge to solve specific problems based on existing assumptions and oftenbased on what has worked in the past, double-loop learning goes a step further and questions existing assumptions in order to createnew insights. For example,the supply chain failures in an organization. <\l >E-LearningThe use of electronic information systems (especially internet technologies) to deliver learning and training.ExtranetA website that links an organisation with other specific organisations or people. Extranets are only accessible to those specifiedorganisations or people and are protected via passwords.GroupwareComputer software applications that are linked together by networks, and so allow people to work together and share electroniccommunications and documentsInformationData that has been organised within a context and translated into a form that has structure and meaning. (Note: while most people havean idea about what information is, it is rather difficult to define in a meaningful way).IntranetA computer network that functions like the internet, but the information and web pages are located on computers within an organisationrather than being accessible to the general public.Continuous --Learning organisationAn organisation that views its success in the future as being based on continuous learning and adaptive behaviour. It therefore becomesskilled at creating, acquiring, interpreting and retaining knowledge and then modifying its behaviour to reflect new knowledge andinsights.

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->