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Answers MS-10 2011

Answers MS-10 2011

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Published by: rakeshpipada on Mar 31, 2011
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Management Programme
Course Code : MS - 10Course Title : Organizational Design, Development and ChangeAssignment Code : MS-10/SEM - I /2011Coverage : All BlocksNote:
Answer all the questions and send them to the Coordinator of the Study Centre you are attached with.1) Briefly describe different approaches to organizations and explain the 7Ss Model and it’s relevance.2) Discuss any four organizational structures and how they contribute to fulfill the demands of new environment. Giveexamples.3) Describe various approaches to job design and their advantages and limitations. Briefly explain how relevant they are intoday’s environment.
4) What is organizational diagnosis? Briefly explain why diagnosis is useful for an organization? Discuss the role of work-shop and task force in diagnosis and their merits and demerits. Give examples.5) What is Organizational Development? Describe different stages of organizational development. Discuss any twointerventions and their contribution to organizational development. Give examples.
1) Briefly describe different approaches to organizations and explain the 7Ss Model andit’s relevance.
Approaches to Organisation and ManagementClassical approach to managementClassical looks at organisations in terms of purpose & formal structureEmphasis was placed on the planning of work, technical requirements of the organisation, principles of management, and theassumption of rational and logical behaviourA clear understanding of the purpose of the organisation was essential to understand how the organisation works and how itsworking methods can be improved.Common principles to the classical approach to managementPrinciple of coordination – the need for people to act together with unity of action, and need for disciplineThe scalar principle – the hierarchy of organisation, the grading of duties and process of delegationFunctional principle – specialisation & distinction between different kinds of dutiesCriticisms of the classical approachInsufficient account taken of personality factorsCreates organisational structures where people can exercise only limited control over their work environmentOut-of-date approach==================================================SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENTThere is a best machine for each job, so there is a best working method by which people should undertake their jobsAll job processes should be analysed into discrete tasks & via this management find the ‘one best’ way to perform each task .Principles of scientific managementThe development of a true science for each person’s workThe scientific selection, training and development of workersCo-operation with workers to ensure work is carried out in prescribed wayThe division of work and responsibility between management and workersBureaucracy – the main characteristicsTasks are allocated as official duties among the various positionsAn implied clear-cut division of labour and a high level of specialisationUniformity of decisions and actions achieved through formally established systems of rules & regulationsAn impersonal orientation expected from officials in their dealing with clientsEmployment is based on technical qualificationsBureaucracy – the main features• SpecialisationHierarchy of authoritySystem of rules• ImpersonalityCriticism of bureaucracyOver-emphasis on rules and procedures, record keeping and paperworkLack of flexibility and stifling of initiativePosition and responsibilities can lead to officious bureaucratic behaviourImpersonal relations can lead to stereotyped behaviour and lack of responsiveness to individual incidents or problems===================================================HUMAN RELATIONS APPROACHIs based on the consideration of the social factors at work and the behaviour of employees within an organisationParticular importance is paid to the informal organisation and the satisfaction of individuals’ needs through groups at workHawthorne experiments acted as a turning point in the development of the Human Relations movementHuman relations approach – the criticismsWeak methodology of Hawthorne experiments, including failure to take sufficient account of environmental factorsAdoption of a management approach, a ‘unitary frame of reference’ and over simplification of theoriesInsufficiently scientific and takes too narrow a view, ignoring the role of the organisation within society.• ============================================THE SYSTEMS APPROACHAttempts to reconcile the classical and human relations approaches
Attention is focused on:the total work of the organisationthe inter-relationships of structures & behaviourthe range of variables within the organisationThe organisation is viewed within its total environment and the importance of multiple channels in interaction is emphasised.===================================================The contingency approachViews the structure of an organisation and its success as dependent on:the nature of tasks that are undertakenthe nature of environmental influencesThere is no one best way to structure or manage organisations - it is dependent on the contingencies of the situation.================================================Post modernismA more recent view of organisations and managementRejects a rational, systems approach and accepted explanations of society and behaviourPlaces greater emphasis on the use of language and attempts to portray a particular set of assumptions or versions of the truthAdvantages of different approaches / categorisationsProvides a setting in which to view the field of managementTraces the major lines of argument developed by different writersProvides a framework in which principles can be set and comparisons of management practice madeHelps in organisational analysis and identification of problem areasEnables managers to select those ideas which best suit the requirements of their job============================================================The McKinsey 7S FrameworkEnsuring that all parts of your organization work in harmonyHow do you go about analyzing how well your organization is positioned to achieve its intended objective? This is a question that hasbeen asked for many years, and there are many different answers. Some approaches look at internal factors, others look at externalones, some combine these perspectives, and others look for congruence between various aspects of the organization being studied.Ultimately, the issue comes down to which factors to study.The 7S model can be used in a wide variety of situations where an alignment perspective is useful, for example to help you:Improve the performance of a company;Examine the likely effects of future changes within a company;Align departments and processes during a merger or acquisition; orDetermine how best to implement a proposed strategy.The Seven ElementsThe McKinsey 7S model involves seven interdependent factors which are categorized as either "hard" or "soft" elements:HARD ELEMENTS --STRATEGY/ STRUCTURE/SYSTEMSSOFT ELEMENTS --SHARED VALUES / STYLE/ STAFF / SKILLS.“Hard” elements are easier to define or identify and management can directly influence them: These are strategy statements;organization charts and reporting lines; and formal processes and IT systems.“Soft” elements, on the other hand, can be more difficult to describe, and are less tangible and more influenced by culture. However,these soft elements are as important as the hard elements if the organization is going to be successful.The way the model is presented in Figure 1 below depicts the interdependency of the elements and indicates how a change in oneaffects all the others.Let’s look at each of the elements specifically:Strategy: the plan devised to maintain and build competitive advantage over the competition.Structure: the way the organization is structured and who reports to whom.Systems: the daily activities and procedures that staff members engage in to get the job done.Shared Values: called “superordinate goals” when the model was first developed, these are the core values of the company thatare evidenced in the corporate culture and the general work ethic.Style: the style of leadership adopted.Staff: the employees and their general capabilities.Skills: the actual skills and competencies of the employees working for the company.How to Use the ModelNow you know what the model covers, how can you use it?The model is based on the theory that, for an organization to perform well, these seven elements need to be aligned and mutuallyreinforcing. So, the model can be used to help identify what needs to be realigned to improve performance, or to maintain alignment(and performance) during other types of change.Whatever the type of change – restructuring, new processes, organizational merger, new systems, change of leadership, and so on the model can be used to understand how the organizational elements are interrelated, and so ensure that the wider impact of changes made in one area is taken into consideration.You can use the 7S model to help analyze the current situation (Point A), a proposed future situation (Point B) and to identify gapsand inconsistencies between them. It’s then a question of adjusting and tuning the elements of the 7S model to ensure that your

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