Charles F. Cox, DMD, PhDDirector, Research & DevelopmentPhoenix Dental Inc. Fenton, Michigan2
component of silicate cement was the toxic factor to vital canine dental pulps.
)It was 2-decades later that
tissue culture tests were first published on silver-tindental amalgam by Dr. Kawahara & colleagues from Osaka University in 1955.
) In1968, Dr. Brännström demonstrated in controlled human studies, that silicate cementwas non-toxic to vital pulp cells
bacteria were the causative agents for inflammationthrough microleakage along the restorative interface.
) In 1977
after years ofpersonal efforts with colleagues
Dr. William Cotton organized the 1
IADR PBGSymposium in Copenhagen, which strongly advocated for the creation of harmonizedbiocompatibility standards
he was 1
to move towards harmonization ofbiocompatibility testing.
) After years of meetings the ISO committee published their1
Book of Harmonized Biocompatibility testing standards in 1999.
) In 2009, the ISOcommittee published revised testing standards that serve as suggested standards,
which may be chosen for evaluation by the ―developing group‖ for biocompatibility
validation.ARE TOXIC AGENTS PRESENT IN TODAYS DENTAL RESTORATIVE AGENTS?Today, the fact remains. There are certain agents that are minor & majorcomponents of restorative dental systems that range from irritational, mutagenic,carcinogenic & toxic to vital human tissues. For instance, research publications reportthat the toxic chemistry of formalin (OSHA Tech guide 2006),
aldehydes (O’Brien et al.
2005), glutaraldehyde (Sano et al. 2005), formocresol (Block 2010), phenol (Conning1970), hydroxy ethyl methacrylates (HEMA), (Mathias et al. 2006), bis-phenyl-A (BPA)(FDA 2010), & ketones (Breeze 1984); are
that range from mild-to-toxic within the International Medical & Dental profession (Autian 1972, 1974).
Isn’t, it somewhat curious that due to that
rather infamous grandfather clausethat
still lingers in the dental industry since the 1950’s e
ra, that the dental profession is stillable to continue to employ many of these irritational & toxic agents as a minor
component of ―newly developed‖ dental products. And, in addition to the various
chemicals, certain metals (nickel, cadmium, zinc, copper) that are commonly found inmany cosmetics also are known to cause initial sensitizing reactions to humans. In1999, Yamanaka reported more intense irritational reactions to human dentine & vitalpulp tissues! Again, even with the current continued ISO acceptance of thesegrandfathered, yet known irritating dental products, many worldwide dental agenciescontinue to permit the clinical use of these agents
even though some are classified as