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Fluid Mechanics 28-29

# Fluid Mechanics 28-29

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11/07/2012

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PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL
This Manual is the proprietary property of The McGraw-HillCompanies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) and protected by copyright and other state and federal laws. By opening and using this Manual the user agrees to the following restrictions, and if the recipient does not agreeto these restrictions, the Manual should be promptly returned unopenedto McGraw-Hill:
This Manual is being provided only to authorizedprofessors and instructors for use in preparing for the classes usingthe affiliated textbook. No other use or distribution of this Manualis permitted. This Manual may not be sold and may not bedistributed to or used by any student or other third party. No partof this Manual may be reproduced, displayed or distributed in anyform or by any means, electronic or otherwise, without the priorwritten permission of McGraw-Hill.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rightsreserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced or distributed in anyform or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or usedbeyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hillfor their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, youare using it without permission.

Solution Manual, Chapter 14 –
Turbomachinery

Chapter 14Turbomachinery
General Problems

14-1C

Solution
We are to discuss energy producing and energy absorbing devices.
Analysis
A more common term for an energy producing turbomachine is a
turbine
. Turbines extract energy from the moving fluid, and convert that energy intouseful mechanical energy in the surroundings, usually in the form of a rotating shaft.Thus, the phrase “energy producing” is from a frame of reference of the fluid – thefluid loses energy as it drives the turbine, producing energy to the surroundings. Onthe other hand, a more common term for an energy absorbing turbomachine is a
pump
. Pumps absorb mechanical energy from the surroundings, usually in the formof a rotating shaft, and increase the energy of the moving fluid. Thus, the phrase“energy absorbing” is from a frame of reference of the fluid – the fluid gains or absorbs energy as it flows through the pump.
Discussion
From the frame of reference of the surroundings, a pump absorbsenergy from the surroundings, while a turbine produces energy to the surroundings.Thus, you may argue that the terminology also holds for the frame of reference of thesurroundings. This alternative explanation is also acceptable.
14-2C

Solution
We are to discuss the differences between fans, blowers, andcompressors.
Analysis
A
fan
is a gas pump with relatively l
ow pressure rise
and
high flowrate
. A
blower
is a gas pump with relatively
moderate to high pressure rise
and
moderate to high flow rate
. A
compressor
is a gas pump designed to deliver a very
high pressure rise
, typically at
low to moderate flow rates
.
Discussion
The boundaries between these three types of pump are not alwaysclearly defined.14-1
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rightsreserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced or distributed in anyform or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or usedbeyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hillfor their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, youare using it without permission.

Solution Manual, Chapter 14 –
Turbomachinery

14-3C

Solution
We are to list examples of fans, blowers, and compressors.
Analysis
Common examples of fans are
window fans, ceiling fans, fans incomputers and other electronics equipment, radiator fans in cars
, etc. Commonexamples of blowers are
leaf blowers, hair dryers, air blowers in furnaces andautomobile ventilation systems
. Common examples of compressors are
tire pumps,refrigerator and air conditioner compressors
.
Discussion
Students should come up with a diverse variety of examples.
14-4C

Solution
We are to discuss the difference between a positive-displacementturbomachine and a dynamic turbomachine.
Analysis

A
positive-displacement turbomachine
is a device that contains aclosed volume; energy is transferred to the fluid (pump) or from the fluid(turbine) via movement of the boundaries of the closed volume
. On the other hand,
a
dynamic turbomachine
has no closed volume; instead, energy istransferred to the fluid (pump) or from the fluid (turbine) via rotating blades
.Examples of positive-displacement pumps include well
pumps, hearts, someaquarium pumps, and pumps designed to release precise volumes of medicine
.Examples of positive-displacement turbines include
water meters and gas meters inthe home
. Examples of dynamic pumps include
fans, centrifugal blowers, airplanepropellers, centrifugal water pumps
(like in a car engine), etc. Examples of dynamic turbines include
windmills, wind turbines, turbine flow meters
, etc.
Discussion
Students should come up with a diverse variety of examples.
14-5C

Solution
We are to discuss the difference between brake horsepower and water horsepower, and then discuss pump efficiency.
Analysis
In turbomachinery terminology,
brake horsepower is the poweractually delivered to the pump through the shaft
. (One may also call it “shaftpower”.) On the other hand,
water horsepower

is the useful portion of the brakehorsepower that is actually delivered to the fluid
. Water horsepower is always lessthan brake horsepower; hence
pump efficiency is defined as the ratio of waterhorsepower to brake horsepower
.
Discussion
For a turbine, efficiency is defined in the opposite way, since brakehorsepower is
less
than water horsepower.14-2
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rightsreserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced or distributed in anyform or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or usedbeyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hillfor their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, youare using it without permission.