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Graphical Presentation of Data

Graphical Presentation of Data

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Published by: PRIYANK on Apr 02, 2011
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01/02/2013

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NOTES Dr. Neeraj Saxena
GRAPHICAL PRESENTATION OF DATA
Like diagrammatic presentation, graphicalpresentation also gives a visual effect.Diagrammatic presentation is used to present dataclassified according to categories andgeographical aspects. On the other hand,graphical presentation is used in situations whenwe observe some functional relationship betweenthe values of two variables.Graphs are generally drawn with the help of two perpendicular lines known as x-axis and y-axis. The selection of proper scale is of great importance in the construction of graphs.In practice, a very large variety of graphs are in use and new ones are constantly beingadded. For the sake of convenience and simplicity, they may be divided under the followingheads:
GRAPHS
A graph is a visual form of presentation of statistical data. A graphis more attractive than a table of figure.Even a common man can understandthe message of data from the graph.Comparisons can be made between twoor more phenomena very easily withthe help of a graph.
TYPES OF GRAPHS
 
NOTES Dr. Neeraj Saxena
As the name implies, it shows the data against time, which could be any measure such ashours, days, weeks, months and years. Thus, a graph showing a number of industrial workersemployed in a company for each of the years 1991-2000 is time series. As regards frequencygraphs, time is not a measure; instead, some other variable such as income of employees andthe number of employees earning that income, if plotted on a graph, will be known as afrequency graph. Within this frequency graph category too, some graphs such as histogram,frequency polygon and the ogive curve are popular graphs.In this topic, we shall discuss and illustrate with examples both types of graphs. However,we first start with the basic approach of dividing a graph sheet into four quadrants.Let us first use the four quadrants of a graph. Suppose we have to locate on a rectangular coordinate system, the points having coordinates (a) 2,5; (b) 5,2; (c) –4,3; (d) 2,-4; (e) –5,-3;(f) 0,-5; and (g) 3,0. We assume that all the given numbers are exact.
Type of GraphsTime Series orLine GraphsFrequencyGraphs
Line GraphsFalse Base LineHistogramFrequency PolygonFrequency CurveOgiveLorenz Curve
TIME SERIES GRAPHS
 
NOTES Dr. Neeraj Saxena
Four Quadrants of a Graph
In the same manner, we can draw graphs of equations. For example, we are given anequation y = x2-2x+5. Here, we assume certain values of x on the basis of which thecorresponding values of y can be obtained. This is shown below.Since all these values are positive, these points will be plotted on the first quadrant whereboth x and y have positive values only.This is shown in figure
Graph of Equation Y=X
2
-2X+5
Line Graph

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