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# 6434X_03

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03/07/2013

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3.0 Introduction
The properties of the working ﬂuid in a gas turbine engine have a powerful impact upon itsperformance. It is essential that these gas properties are accounted rigorously in calculations,orthatanyinaccuracyduetosimplifyingassumptionsisquantiﬁedandunderstood.Thischapterdescribes at an engineering level the fundamental gas properties of concern, and their variousinterrelationships. It also provides a comprehensive data base for use in calculations for:
.
Dry air
.
Combustion products for kerosene or diesel fuel
.
Combustion products for natural gas fuel
.
Helium, the working ﬂuid often employed in closed cyclesChapter 12 covers the impact of water content due to humidity, condensation, or injection of water or steam. Chapter 13 provides the key properties of gas turbine fuels.
3.1 Description of fundamental gas properties
Reference 1 provides an exhaustive description of fundamental gas properties. Those relevantto gas turbine performance are described below, and section 3.5 provides a data base suﬃcientfor all performance calculations.
3.1.1
Equation of state for a perfect gas (Formula F3.1)
A
perfect gas
adheres to Formula F3.1. All gases employed as the working ﬂuid in gas turbineengines,exceptforwatervapour,maybeconsideredasperfectgaseswithoutcompromisingcal-culation accuracy. When the mass fraction of water vapour is less than 10%, which is usuallythe case when it results from the combination of ambient humidity and products of combus-tion, then for performance calculations the gas mixture may still be considered perfect. Whenwater vapour content exceeds 10% the assumption of a perfect gas is no longer valid and forrigorous calculations steam tables (Reference 2) must be employed in parallel, for that fractionof the mixture. This is described further in Chapter 12.A physical description of a perfect gas is that its enthalpy is only a function of temperatureand
not
pressure, as there are no intermolecular forces to absorb or release energy whendensity changes.
3.1.2
Molecular weight and the mole
The
molecular weight
for a pure gas is deﬁned in the
Periodic Table
. For mixtures of gases,such as air, the molecular weight may be found by averaging the constituents on a
molar
(volumetric) basis. This is because a mole contains a ﬁxed number of molecules, as described
Chapter 3
Properties and Charts for Dry Air,Combustion Products and otherWorking Fluids

below. For example as shown by sample calculation C3.1, the molecular weight of dry airgiven in section 3.5.1 may be derived from the molecular weight of its constituents and theirmole fractions provided in section 3.3.A
mole
is the quantity of a substance such that the mass is equal to the molecular weight ingrammes. For any perfect gas one mole occupies a volume of 22.4 litres at 0
8
C, 101.325kPa.A mole contains the Avogadro’s number of molecules, 6.023
Â
10
23
.
3.1.3
Speciﬁc heat at constant pressure (CP) and at constant volume (CV)(Formulae F3.2 and F3.3)
These are the amounts of energy required to raise the temperature of one kilogramme of thegas by 1
8
C, at constant pressure and volume respectively. For gas turbine engines, with asteady ﬂow of gas (as opposed to piston engines where it is intermittent) only the speciﬁc heatat constant pressure,
CP
, is used directly. This is referred to hereafter simply as
speciﬁc heat
.For the gases of interest speciﬁc heat is a function of only gas composition and statictemperature. For performance calculations total temperature can normally be used up toMach numbers of 0.4 with negligible loss in accuracy, since dynamic temperature (section3.2.1) remains a low proportion of the total.
3.1.4
Gas constant (R) (Formulae F3.4 and F3.5)
The gas constant appears extensively in formulae relating pressure and temperature changes,and is numerically equal to the diﬀerence between
CP
and
CV
. The gas constant for anindividual gas is the universal gas constant divided by the molecular weight, and has units of J/kgK. The universal gas constant has a value of 8314.3J/molK.
3.1.5
Ratio of speciﬁc heats, gamma (

) (Formulae F3.6–F3.8)
This is the ratio of the speciﬁc heat at constant pressure to that at constant volume. Again it isa function of gas composition and static temperature, but total temperature may be used whenthe Mach number is less than 0.4. Gamma appears extensively in the ‘perfect gas’ formulaerelating pressure and temperature changes and component eﬃciencies.
3.1.6
Dynamic viscosity (VIS) and Reynolds number (RE)(Formulae F3.9 and F2.13)
Dynamic viscosityis usedto calculate the Reynoldsnumber, which reﬂects the ratioof momen-tum to viscous forces present in a ﬂuid. The Reynolds number is used in many performancecalculations, such as for disc windage, and has a second-order eﬀect on component eﬃciencies.Dynamic viscosity is a measure of the viscous forces and is a function of gas composition andstatic temperature. As viscosity has only a second-order eﬀect on an engine cycle, totaltemperature may be used up to a Mach number of 0.6. The eﬀect of fuel air ratio (gascomposition) is negligible for practical purposes.The units of viscosity of Ns/m
2
are derived from N/(m/s)/m; force per unit gradient of velocity. Gas velocity varies in a direction perpendicular to the ﬂow in the boundary layers onall gas washed surfaces.
3.2 Description of key thermodynamic parameters
The key thermodynamic parameters most widely used in gas turbine performance calculationsare described below. Their interrelationships are dependent upon the values of the funda-mental gas properties described above. These parameters are described further in References 1and 3, and section 3.5 provides a data base suﬃcient for all performance calculations.
Properties and Charts for Dry Air, Combustion Products and other Working Fluids
103

3.2.1
Total or stagnation temperature (T) (Formula F3.10 or F3.31)
Total temperature is the temperature resulting from bringing a gas stream to rest with no workor heat transfer. Note that here ‘at rest’ means relative to the engine, which may have a ﬂightvelocity relative to the Earth. The diﬀerence between the total and static temperatures at agiven point is called the
dynamic temperature.
The ratio of total to static temperature is afunction of only gamma and Mach number, as per Formula F3.10 or F3.31.In general for gas turbine
performance
calculations total temperature is used through theengine, evaluated at engine entry from the ambient static temperature and any ram eﬀect. Atlocations between engine components total temperature is a valid measure of energy changes.In addition, this aids comparison between predictions and test data, as it is only practical tomeasure total temperature. For most
component design
purposes, however, static conditionsare also relevant, as for example the Mach number is often high (1.0 and greater) at entry to acompressor stator or turbine rotor blade.
Total temperature is constant for ﬂow along ducts where there is no work or heat transfer
, suchas intake and exhaust systems. Total and static temperature diverge much less rapidly versusMach number than do total and static pressure, as described below.
3.2.2
Total or stagnation pressure (P) (Formulae F3.11 orF3.32; F3.12 and F3.13)
Total pressure is that which would result from bringing a gas stream to rest without any workor heat transfer, and without any change in entropy (section 3.2.4). Total pressure is thereforean idealised property.The diﬀerence between total and static pressure at a point is called either the
dynamic pres-sure
,
or
(Formulae F3.12 and F3.13). The term
relates back tohydraulic engineering. The ratio of total to static pressure, as for temperature, is a function of only gamma and Mach number. Most performance calculations are conducted using totalpressure, that at engine inlet again resulting from ambient static plus intake ram recovery.Total pressure is not constant for ﬂow through ducts, being reduced by wall friction andchanges in ﬂow direction, which produce turbulent losses. Both these eﬀects act on thedynamic head; as described in Chapter 5 the pressure loss in a duct of given geometry and inletswirl angle is almost always a ﬁxed number of inlet dynamic heads. For this reason forperformance calculations both the total and static pressure must often be evaluated at entry toducts. Again for component design purposes both the total and static values are of interest.Total and static pressure diverge much more rapidly versus Mach number than do total andstatic temperature. Calculation of pressure ratio from temperature ratio is far more sensitive toerrors in the assumption of the mean gamma than the reverse calculation.
3.2.3
Speciﬁc enthalpy (H) (Formulae F3.14–F3.16)
This is the energy per kilogramme of gas relative to a stipulated zero datum.
Changes
inenthalpy, rather than absolute values, are important for gas turbine performance. Total orstatic enthalpy may be calculated, depending on which of the respective temperatures is used.Total enthalpy, like total temperature, is most common in performance calculations.
3.2.4
Speciﬁc entropy (S) (Formulae F3.17–F3.21)
Traditionally the property entropy has been shrouded in mystery, primarily due to being lesstangible than the other properties discussed in this chapter. Section 3.6.4 shows how entropyrelates to other thermodynamic properties relevant to gas turbine performance, and therebyhelps overcome these diﬃculties.
During compression or expansion the increase in entropy is a measure of the thermal energylost to friction, which becomes unavailable as useful work
. Again, changes in entropy, rather
104
Gas Turbine Performance

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