Total or stagnation temperature (T) (Formula F3.10 or F3.31)
Total temperature is the temperature resulting from bringing a gas stream to rest with no workor heat transfer. Note that here ‘at rest’ means relative to the engine, which may have a ﬂightvelocity relative to the Earth. The diﬀerence between the total and static temperatures at agiven point is called the
The ratio of total to static temperature is afunction of only gamma and Mach number, as per Formula F3.10 or F3.31.In general for gas turbine
calculations total temperature is used through theengine, evaluated at engine entry from the ambient static temperature and any ram eﬀect. Atlocations between engine components total temperature is a valid measure of energy changes.In addition, this aids comparison between predictions and test data, as it is only practical tomeasure total temperature. For most
purposes, however, static conditionsare also relevant, as for example the Mach number is often high (1.0 and greater) at entry to acompressor stator or turbine rotor blade.
Total temperature is constant for ﬂow along ducts where there is no work or heat transfer
, suchas intake and exhaust systems. Total and static temperature diverge much less rapidly versusMach number than do total and static pressure, as described below.
Total or stagnation pressure (P) (Formulae F3.11 orF3.32; F3.12 and F3.13)
Total pressure is that which would result from bringing a gas stream to rest without any workor heat transfer, and without any change in entropy (section 3.2.4). Total pressure is thereforean idealised property.The diﬀerence between total and static pressure at a point is called either the
(Formulae F3.12 and F3.13). The term
relates back tohydraulic engineering. The ratio of total to static pressure, as for temperature, is a function of only gamma and Mach number. Most performance calculations are conducted using totalpressure, that at engine inlet again resulting from ambient static plus intake ram recovery.Total pressure is not constant for ﬂow through ducts, being reduced by wall friction andchanges in ﬂow direction, which produce turbulent losses. Both these eﬀects act on thedynamic head; as described in Chapter 5 the pressure loss in a duct of given geometry and inletswirl angle is almost always a ﬁxed number of inlet dynamic heads. For this reason forperformance calculations both the total and static pressure must often be evaluated at entry toducts. Again for component design purposes both the total and static values are of interest.Total and static pressure diverge much more rapidly versus Mach number than do total andstatic temperature. Calculation of pressure ratio from temperature ratio is far more sensitive toerrors in the assumption of the mean gamma than the reverse calculation.
Speciﬁc enthalpy (H) (Formulae F3.14–F3.16)
This is the energy per kilogramme of gas relative to a stipulated zero datum.
inenthalpy, rather than absolute values, are important for gas turbine performance. Total orstatic enthalpy may be calculated, depending on which of the respective temperatures is used.Total enthalpy, like total temperature, is most common in performance calculations.
Speciﬁc entropy (S) (Formulae F3.17–F3.21)
Traditionally the property entropy has been shrouded in mystery, primarily due to being lesstangible than the other properties discussed in this chapter. Section 3.6.4 shows how entropyrelates to other thermodynamic properties relevant to gas turbine performance, and therebyhelps overcome these diﬃculties.
During compression or expansion the increase in entropy is a measure of the thermal energylost to friction, which becomes unavailable as useful work
. Again, changes in entropy, rather
Gas Turbine Performance