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Self-Compacting Concrete - Procedure for Mix Design

Self-Compacting Concrete - Procedure for Mix Design

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Published by: M HAFEEZ RAJA on Apr 02, 2011
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 Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and TechnologiesISSN 1583-1078Issue 12, January-June 2008p. 15-24
Self-Compacting Concrete - Procedure for Mix Design
Paratibha AGGARWAL
, Surinder M GUPTA
Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology (Deemed University),Kurukshetra (Haryana), India
Department of Civil Engineering, Thapar University, Patiala (Punjab), India
Corresponding author)
Self-compacting concrete is a fluid mixture suitable for placing in structureswith congested reinforcement without vibration. Self-compacting concretedevelopment must ensure a good balance between deformability and stability.Also, compactibility is affected by the characteristics of materials and the mixproportions; it becomes necessary to evolve a procedure for mix design of SCC. The paper presents an experimental procedure for the design of self-compacting concrete mixes. The test results for acceptance characteristics of self-compacting concrete such as slump flow; J-ring, V-funnel and L-Box arepresented. Further, compressive strength at the ages of 7, 28, and 90 days wasalso determined and results are included here.
Self-compacting Concrete; Fly Ash; Mix Design; Fresh Properties; HardenedConcrete Properties; Compressive Strength.
Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC), which flows under its own weight and does notrequire any external vibration for compaction, has revolutionized concrete placement. SCC,was first introduced in the late 1980’s by Japanese researchers [1], is highly workable
Self-Compacting Concrete - Procedure for Mix Design
Paratibha AGGARWAL, Rafat SIDDIQUE, Yogesh AGGARWAL, Surinder M GUPTA 
concrete that can flow under its own weight through restricted sections without segregationand bleeding. Such concrete should have a relatively low yield value to ensure high flowability, a moderate viscosity to resist segregation and bleeding, and must maintain itshomogeneity during transportation, placing and curing to ensure adequate structuralperformance and long term durability. The successful development of SCC must ensure agood balance between deformability and stability. Researchers have set some guidelines formixture proportioning of SCC, which include i) reducing the volume ratio of aggregate tocementitious material [1-2]; (ii) increasing the paste volume and water-cement ratio (w/c);(iii) carefully controlling the maximum coarse aggregate particle size and total volume; and(iv) using various viscosity enhancing admixtures (VEA) [1].For SCC, it is generally necessary to use superplasticizers in order to obtain highmobility. Adding a large volume of powdered material or viscosity modifying admixture caneliminate segregation. The powdered materials that can be added are fly ash, silica fume, limestone powder, glass filler and quartzite filler.Since, self-compactibility is largely affected by the characteristics of materials and themix proportions, it becomes necessary to evolve a procedure for mix design of SCC. Okamuraand Ozawa have proposed a mix proportioning system for SCC [3]. In this system, the coarseaggregate and fine aggregate contents are fixed and self-compactibility is to be achieved byadjusting the water /powder ratio and super plasticizer dosage. The coarse aggregate contentin concrete is generally fixed at 50 percent of the total solid volume, the fine aggregatecontent is fixed at 40 percent of the mortar volume and the water /powder ratio is assumed tobe 0.9-1.0 by volume depending on the properties of the powder and the super plasticizerdosage. The required water /powder ratio is determined by conducting a number of trials. Oneof the limitations of SCC is that there is no established mix design procedure yet.This paper describes a procedure specifically developed to achieve self-compactingconcrete. In addition, the test results for acceptance characteristics for self-compactingconcrete such as slump flow, J-ring, V-funnel and L-Box are presented. Further, the strengthcharacteristics in terms of compressive strength for 7-days, 28-days and 90-days are alsopresented.
 Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and TechnologiesISSN 1583-1078Issue 12, January-June 2008p. 15-24
Materials Used
Ordinary Portland cement (Grade 43) was used. Its physical properties are as given inTable 1.
Fly ash
Class F Fly ash obtained from “Panipat Thermal Power Station, Haryana, India. Thephysical and chemical properties of fly ash are given in the Table 2 and Table 3, respectively.
Table 1. Physical Properties of Cement
Physical property Results obtained IS: 8112-1989 [4]
Fineness (retained on 90-
m sieve)8.0 10mmNormal Consistency 28% -Vicat initial setting time (minutes) 75 30 min
Vicat final setting time (minutes) 215 600 max
Compressive strength 3-days (MPa) 23 22.0 min
Compressive strength 7-days (MPa) 36 33.0 min
Compressive strength 28days(MPa) 45 43.0 min
Specific gravity 3.15 -
Table 2. Physical Properties of Fly Ash
Sr.No.Physical Properties Test Results
1. Colour Grey(Blackish)2. Specific Gravity 2.133. Lime Reactivity -average compressive strength after 28 days of mixture‘A’4.90 MPa
Table 3. Chemical Properties of Fly Ash
Sr. No. Constituents Percent by Weight
1. Loss on ignition 4.172. Silica (SiO
) 58.553. Iron Oxide (Fe
) 3.444. Alumina (Al
) 28.205. Calcium Oxide (CaO) 2.236. Magnesium Oxide (MgO) 0.327. Total Sulphur (SO
) 0.078. Insoluble residue -9. Alkalies a) Sodium Oxide (Na
O)b) Potassium Oxide (K

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