2Such base pairing results in one DNA strand being complementary to the other. Hydrogen bondingbetween the DNA bases can be seen in Figure 2.DNA consists of two associated polynucleotide strands that wind together to form a double helix.The two sugar phosphate backbones are on the outside of the double helix, and the bases project into the interior. The orientation of the two strands is anti-parallel; that is, their 5´
3´directionsare opposite. (Lodish, et al. 2007).
The structure of the DNA double helix is shown in Figure 2.DNA is present not only in chromosomes in the nucleus of eukaryotic organisms, but also inmitochondria and the chloroplasts of plants. Prokaryotic cells, which lack nuclei, have a singlechromosome, but may also contain DNA in the form of plasmids (Harvey, Ferrier and Champe2004).RNA is found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and an increase in protein synthesis isaccompanied by an increase in the amount of cytoplasmic RNA and an increase in its rate of turnover (Nelson and Cox 2008).In all prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, three main classes of RNA molecules exist: messengerRNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) (Murray, et al. 2003).The templates for protein synthesis are RNA (ribonucleic acid) molecules. In particular, a class of RNA molecules called messenger RNA (mRNA) are the information-carrying intermediates inprotein synthesis. Other RNA molecules, such as transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA),are part of the protein-synthesizing machinery (Stryer, Berg and Tymoczko 2002).Figure 2: The Structure of the DNA double helix showinghydrogen bonding between the bases (Hames and Hooper2005).