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Mission Report STS-4 Test Mission Simulates Operational Flight. President Terms Success Golden Spike in Space

Mission Report STS-4 Test Mission Simulates Operational Flight. President Terms Success Golden Spike in Space

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Published by: Bob Andrepont on Apr 02, 2011
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04/02/2011

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STS-4 insignia.
.
MI
SSION kEPUNT: STS-4
SIMIULATES UPERATICNAL
ZE BS SUCCESS GULDEN S
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Mat ion al At! tolldUtlCS
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National Aeronautics ind
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OPi SINAL PAGE
BLACK AND WHITE PHOTOGRAPH
TEii
8ISSIUM
N82-31399
FL1.:n1. PhESIDENT
biKi
.Lb SPACE
Mission
M R -004
Report
STS-4 Test Mission Simulates Operational Flight
President Terms Success "Golden Spike" in Space
Completion
of
Columbia s
fourth and final test flight
achieved p
r
eas
P
ly what NASA
engineers and
technicians
had in r
.
,.
,
,
I
tsun-time launch. near-flawless completion
of all
ass.:
,
 
jr
r tasks, and perfect landing ushered in a
new era in
ti
ie nation s
exploration of space--a full)operational, reusable spacec
r
aft now set to begin its lob in
earnest
Columbia's
final test
mission
finished as
planned--as a routine flight.President Reagan compared the achievement with the"golden spike" that signaled the beginning oftranscontinental railroading in an earlier eraThomas K (Ken) Mattingly II (commander) and HenryW Hartsfield. Jr., (pilot) brought their spacecraft to aperfect landing on concrete runway 22 at Edwards AirForce Base. California at 12:09 p m EDT. July 4,1982—ending a flight of seven days. one hour. and nineminutes that began with a textbook liftoff from KennedySpace Center, Florida at 11 a m EDT, June 27.
Emph^, sizing that the Shuttle and its crew are nL)w
ready for scheduled, on-time duty, they traveled 3 millionmiles and arrived back on Earth on Americas 206thbirthday—to celebrate the
occasion
with the President andan estimated half million of their fellow Americans atEdwards plus a world-wide TV audience The confidence
that this would happen was apparent in their selection of
their
mission
patch
design. showing
Columbia
streaking
into the future leaving contrails of red, white, and blue
Reagan Cites Shuttle's Potential
"Now we move forward." President Reagan said.
Io
capitalize on the tremendous potentia! offered by theultimate frontier of space.' During the Presidents speech,the second Shuttle orbiter
Challenger,
perched atop its
747 carrier aircraft. soared past the reviewing stand aftertaking off from Edwards on its way to Kennedy Space
 
W
111111t,
4
I
Center to be groaned for its first launch into orbit Rolled
out from Rockwell Intern3honal s Palmdale. California.
plant June 30.
Challenger is
the second of four
operattona Space Shuttle orbiters
Enterpnse,
also on
display, was used for aerodynamic testing in Eartn'satmosphere and will not be flown on orbital flights.
Discovery
and
Atlantis.
scheduled to join to space
missions to 1Q83 and 1984. respectively, complete the
presently authorized family of orbiters destined for space
duty
Challenger
is the first orbite
r
designed to be fullyoperattonal from tiie outset. ;:s presently equipped.
Columbia is
capable of limited operational duty But. after
refitting.
Columbia will
closely resemble
Challenger
and
share the operational workload. The second orbitingspacecraft has more accommodations for crew andpassengers. incorporates engineering changes developedthrough
Columbia's
test flights. and is at least 2.000pounds iighter than
Columbia
because of more advanced
structures and materials.
Orbiter Certified Operational
Columbia's
nearly flawless performance on its finaltest mission resulted in certification of the Space
Transportation System (STS) as a fully operational carrier.
James M Beggs, NASA Administrator. said.
-
We are
ready to put the Space Transportation System to workand it will earn its way.'President Reagan referred to using the "nearweightlessness and nearly perfect vacuum of space to
produce special alloys. metals, crystals. and biologicai
materials impossible to manufacture on Earth."Reactor which performed successfully on STS-3. Some ofthe STS-3 experiments were used as "seed' items to test
whether larger monodisperse (identically sized)
mtcrospheres could be produced in space The size towhich such spheres can be developed on Earth is limitedbecause of Earth s gravity Production in space may result
in mtcr^
:
oheres that will be widely used to calibrating
rnstrumen,s such as electron microscopes and to carrying
precise amounts of drugs and isotopes directly todiseased or cancerous tissues.
Experiments Involve Crew
Mattingly and Hartsfieid participated in two medicalexperiments, both of which were winning entries of theShuttle Student Involvement Project of NASA and theNational Science Teachers Associat
i
on. One
experiment was by Amy Kusske of Wilson High School.Long Beach. Calif.. and the othe
r
. by Ka.laHauersperger of East Mec
t
lenberg High School,
Charlotte, N.0 Mattingly's and Hartsheld's blood and
urine were sampled before and after their flight. Theyrecorded their food intake and exercise periods MissKusske wanted to determine whether pro
p
er distribution
of cholesterol to the body in microgravity requiresstrenuous exercise. Miss Hauersperger sought to knowwhether microgravity reduces chromium levels Achromium deficiency decreases effectiveness of insulinand can produce diabetes-like symptoms. Thebiomedical laboratories at NASA's Johnson SpaceCenter analyzed the blood and urine samples for both
experimenters.
Applications Experiments on
Columbia
The first experiment by a commercial firm was carvedon STS-4 This was an engineering test of the Continuous
Flow Electror: ioresis System. Unlike other electrophoresis
equipment,
it
processes materials in a continuous stream.It was designed by McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co..St Louis. Yissouri, which is conducting the experiment incollaboration with scientists of the Orho PharmaceuticalDivision of Johnson and .Johnson Co. The exp inmentwas flown as part of a joint endeavor agreement in whichNASA and industry become partners in promotingdevelopment of advanced commercial products to space.The companies agree to advance to make the productsderived from such experiments available to the public at
reasonable cost
Electrophoresis is a technique used to separatebiological materials in a fluid according to their electricalc` 3rges as they pass through an electrical field Theprocess is used to produce many pharmaceuticals. OnEarth, gravity-induced phenomena in the solution. such assettling and convection. lir -t the output and purity ofmaterials produced by electrophoresis In the near zerogravity of space, such limitations are largely removed OnJune 30. Mattingly and Hartsfield reported that thematerials used had been successfully separated in theContinuous Flow Electrophoresis System. supporting thepotential use of this device in space to produce more,better, and lower cost pharmaceuticalsIn another experiment with many medical and scientificapplications. STS-4 carried the Monodisperse LatexSTS-4 lift-oft.
ORIGINAL PAGE
BLACK AND WHITE PHOTOGRAPI-
 
First Getaway Special
STS-4 also
carried
the
first
Getaway Special. thepopular namo for the Space Transportation Systems
Small Self-Cor
tained Payload Program Customers
anywhere
in
ttw world can purchase a Getaway Specialfor ar little as $3.000 for scientific and technologicalexperiments Reservations are accepted on a first-come.first-served. space-available basis Nearly 350reservations from individuals. organizations and
governments have already been booked from the ini
l
w iStates and 14 other countries Getaway Specials must
operate automatically and require little attention in spaceThe STS-4 Getaway Special was purchased by Gi
l
t. art
Moore of North Ogden, Utah. for $10.000 and donated toUtah State Univeisity Its nine experiments by universitystudents covered such fields o
f
microgravity as growth offruitflies, brine shrimp, duckweed, and algae: testing the
thermal conductivity of an oil and water mixture ir a
near-weightless environment: soldering alloying: surfacetension. and curing of composite materials
N
defective circuit prevented electrical power fromreaching the Getaway Special After several attempts toturn on the experiment fa,!ed. Mattingly and Hartsfieldfollowed a technique devised by NASA engineers anddescribed as comparable tc "hot wiring" an automobile !o
start it without an ignition key Anxious University of Utah
studen
t
s lea
r
ned on June 29 that their experiment hadbeen turned on and exultingly praised the crew.
paraphrasing Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong as he
first set foot on the Moon They radioed: "One small
switch for NASA. a giant turn-on for us "
Lightring Survey
Mattingly and Hartsfield took many still and motionpictures of lightning and thunderstorms viewed fromorbit This Nightime Daylight Optical Survey of Lightningexperiment was first conducted on STE ?, a two
-
day
flight. The photographs will contribute to satelliteweather forecasting techniques
Shuttle's Environment Measured
The crew employed the huge manipulator arm in thecargo bay twice to lift and swing the InducedEnvironment Contamination Momor ;IECM) around thepayload area to get information about particles,
mo-sture, and gases in the bay that could ^,ffeut
perimcnts. The bay was facing the Sun during these
expe
r
iments to gain maximum release of orbitercontaminants When they first tried to use the arm onJune 29, the crew saw a glowing trouble light. indicatingthat the snare-like end effector of the robot arm wouldnot grasp the IECM This turned out to be a false
alarm
Rain and Hail Precede Launch
STS-4 was the smoothest and most successful of theorbiter test flights. The flawless countdown wasachieved despite pre-launch torrential rains and a hailstorm which pitted and drenched
Columbia's
skin tiles
Before launch, technicians applied a hardeningchemical to smooth and strengthen the tiles
Getaway Special is installed in
Columbia's
payload bayfor STS-4 mission.
Solid Rocket Boosters Lost
The two reusable solid rocket boosters were lostwhen
they
plunged intn the Atlantic Ocean and sank inabout 3100 feet of water. This was the first time thebooster rockets were not recovered. "The onlyconclusion we can draw." George B. Hardy. SolidRocket Booster Manager said, "is that the main
parachutes failed to function."
Thermal Test Program Modified
The test program for the mission exposed parts of
Columbia tot
p. olonged periods to extremes of
(teat
and
cold Originally planned exposures called for tail to Sunfor 66 hours: bottom to Sun for 33 hours: and payloadbay to Sun exposure of 5 hours.These periods were altered because hail haddamaged numero
is
tiles, allowing them to absorbwater. Engineers viere concerned that the water-soakedtiles migh! freeze aid be further damaged.Consequently they oriented the orbiter allowing its
rain-sc,aked underside to face the Sun—to dry the tiles
by vaporizing the water Temperature readings frominstrumented tiles
WE
re used to verity that the affected
tiles had ;fried completely.
While keeping the inderside facing the Sun,
Mattingly and Hartstield continued their experiments
and opened and closed the payload bay doors on thecold side of
Columbia
One door failed to close properly
during this procedure.
When a similar problem occurred during STS-3. itwas corrected by rolling the orbiter
!o
heat it evenly. By
repeating this maneuver, Mattingly and Hartsfield wereable to open and close the payload bay doors easily.This reassured the crew and engineers on Earth thatstructural warping responsible for the problem was atemporary difficulty and could be solved with relatively
simple procedures.
1RIGINAL PAG1=
BLACK AND WHITE PHOTOGR
APif

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