Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Hydro Geology of the Indo Gangatic Plains

Hydro Geology of the Indo Gangatic Plains

Ratings: (0)|Views: 120|Likes:
Published by Y. Dutt
HYDROGEOLOGY of the INDO­GANGETIC ALLUVIUM                                                        Vrindhanath.M.C

an assignment submitted to Dr.A.P.Pradeepkumar, Reader

Vrindhanath.M.C 3rd semester MSc Disaster Management  School of Environmental Sciences Mahatma Gandhi University Kottayam Kerala India www.sesmgu.org www.disasterresearch.net Jan 2011

1

HYDROGEOLOGY of the INDO­GANGETIC ALLUVIUM                                                     
HYDROGEOLOGY of the INDO­GANGETIC ALLUVIUM                                                        Vrindhanath.M.C

an assignment submitted to Dr.A.P.Pradeepkumar, Reader

Vrindhanath.M.C 3rd semester MSc Disaster Management  School of Environmental Sciences Mahatma Gandhi University Kottayam Kerala India www.sesmgu.org www.disasterresearch.net Jan 2011

1

HYDROGEOLOGY of the INDO­GANGETIC ALLUVIUM                                                     

More info:

Published by: Y. Dutt on Apr 03, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

07/19/2012

pdf

text

original

 
HYDROGEOLOGY of the INDO­GANGETIC ALLUVIUM 
Vrindhanath.M.C
1
 
 
HYDROGEOLOGY of theINDO­GANGETIC ALLUVIUM
an assignment submitted to Dr.A.P.Pradeepkumar, ReaderVrindhanath.M.C3rdsemesterMSc Disaster ManagementSchool of Environmental SciencesMahatma Gandhi UniversityKottayamKeralaIndia
Jan 2011
 
HYDROGEOLOGY of the INDO­GANGETIC ALLUVIUM 
Vrindhanath.M.C
INDO­GANGETIC ALLUVIUM
The Indian landmass consists of three physiographic domains; the Himalayas, Indo­Gangetic Plain (IGP), and Peninsular Shield. The Indo­Gangetic Plain is a 400­800 kmwide, low relief, east­west zone between the Himalaya in the north and the Peninsula inthe south . It is a sinking basin that came into being about 50 Ma ago due to epiorogenicmovements of Himalaya and was subsequently filled up by the sediments deposited bynortherly and southerly drainage under the influence of climate changes, mainly fromthe Middle Miocene (Rowley 1996).The Indus and Ganges river basins are among the world’s largest and most productiveecosystems. Home to three quarters of a billion people; the combined basin area extendsover 2.25 million km
2
from the mouth of the Ganges to that of the Indus. The basinprovides water for the economic base of agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and livestock, aswell as the urban and industrial water requirements of about one billion people. Morethan 90% of total water use is for agriculture, followed by 8% for domestic use (IGBBrochure, 2003). The Indus­Ganges plains form the largest consolidated area of irrigatedfood production on the globe with a net cropped area of 114 million ha. Groundwaterdevelopment (i.e. the percentage of annual net draft to annual available groundwaterresources), has been very rapid in the last two decades with development reaching77.7% in the Indus and 33.5% in the Ganges part of the combined basin area (Sikka andGichuki, 2006).While agricultural technologies and the harnessing of water have proceeded apace, landand water degradation are taking an increasing toll on the basin economy. Future foodsecurity in this area, which is the key breadbasket for South Asia, is threatened by acombination of land and water degradation, stagnating productivity, reduced harvestedarea, and rapidly increasing populations and, concomitantly, food demand .Much of thegroundwater use in the basin area is not sustainable. While past development of tubewell irrigation was an important factor in increasing food production and reducingpoverty, the basin is now being confronted with major groundwater managementchallenges: over­exploitation of groundwater and declining water tables in the drierIndus and western Ganges part of the basin, water logging and secondary salinizationin high intensity irrigation command areas, and rapidly growing pollution of waterresources.
2
 
HYDROGEOLOGY of the INDO­GANGETIC ALLUVIUM 
Vrindhanath.M.C
The Indo­Gangetic Basin, though blessed with a vast network of dams, canals, andstrong irrigation bureaucracy, has lost its historical supremacy of the surface irrigationsystems to the more informal, demand­based and equitable groundwater irrigation.Most canal commands in the region are shrinking with groundwater taking over thecritical role of irrigation provisioning. In large parts of the Indo­Gangetic Basin findinga farmer who either does not have his own pump or does not purchase water from hisneighboring pump­owner may be a difficult task (Shah, 2006). The present size of thegroundwater economy in the region is substantial, and it is groundwater irrigation thatlargely account for the variations in the value of agricultural output per hectare.Groundwater irrigation is helping in catalyzing the spread of the green revolution intonew areas that were not covered by surface irrigation in the 1970s. Despite this, thedevelopment, use, sharing and groundwater markets, and the agricultural productionand large social benefits produced by the groundwater resource are not uniform anddepend heavily upon the prevailing hydrology and socioecology of the givenregion/state in the vast basin, albeit with very interesting twists. Understandingsustainable groundwater management in the developing world requires blending of three distinct perspectives: (a) the resource, (b) the user, and (3) the institutional.
GROUND WATER IN SANSKRIT LITERATURE
The study of our scriptures reveals that ancient Indian thinkers such as Sarasvatu,Manu with scientific bent were not only interested in exploring the means of storingrain­water but also exploring the methods to locate ground water sources. ManySanskrit works like Brihatsamhita of Varahamihira, Arthasastra of Kautilya etc.,describe the interior of the earth to be full of water channels, like the veins in the humanbody, further subdividing into hundreds and thousands of streams at different levelscausing life of different plants and trees on the earth. These works claim that on thebasis of certain plants and trees, ground water resources can be explored in the areaswhere surface water is not available. There are other methods like smell of soil andcharacter of rocks using which it can also be assessed whether water is sweet, saline,acidic or bitterThe
shastras
warn that deep wells are foolish to dig. At eight arm­lengths depth, thewell is
manohar
, or beautiful. At thirteen arm­lengths, it becomes
rudrakupa
, a well thatcauses fear. The excavations at Mohenjo­Daro have revealed brick­lined dug wellsexisting as early as 3000 B.C. during the Indus Valley Civilization. The writings of Vishnu Kautilya (in the reign of Chandragupta Maurya—300 B.C.) indicate that ground
3

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->