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Giao Trinh He Thong Nhung - VDK H8

Giao Trinh He Thong Nhung - VDK H8

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Published by: gaikieuuc on Apr 03, 2011
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06/04/2013

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 h t t p : / / r e s o u r c e . r e n e s a s . c o m Page 1
Chapter 1Microprocessor Operation
This chapter lets you understand that the microprocessor is built of aCPU, memory and data input/output ICs, that it operates on a "stored program"basis, and that it is available in multi-chip/single-chip architectures.These concepts are not confined to the H8/300H but extend to all otherkinds of microprocessors.
1.1 Microprocessor Configuration
The microprocessor is said to be a "computer built around ICs."Mainframes, minis, and microprocessors all share the same principles of operation and vary only in their scale, speed and architecture. The minimumcomponents required to build a computer are the CPU, memory and I/Odevices as shown in Figure 1.1.
Figure 1.1 Microprocessor configuration
All these components of a microprocessor are fabricated of a single IC.Such ICs are coupled to build a computer. Three minimum ICs needed to makeup a microprocessor are the CPU, memory, and peripheral IC.
 
 h t t p : / / r e s o u r c e . r e n e s a s . c o m Page 2
CPU (Central Processing Unit)
The CPU forms the nucleus of any computer by executing instructions.Microprocessors are grouped into 4-bit, 8-bit, 16-bit, and 32-bitmicroprocessors according to the length of bits they can handle at a time. A 4-bit microprocessor can handle four binary digits in a single instance of calculation, but as many as eight digits in two instances and 16 in fourinstances.The microprocessor is also known as a "MPU (microprocessing unit)","microprocessor", or simply "processor."
Memory (Memory
)A device on which instructions and data are stored. Without memory,programs and data cannot be used. In a microprocessor, ROM (read-onlymemory) and RAM (random access memory) are used.
Input device (Input)
A data input device. The keyboard and mouse of a PC, for example, aredata input devices. With a built-in controller, switches and sensors are inputdevices.These input devices cannot be directly connected to a CPU, but theymust be attached to the CPU by way of a "peripheral IC," containingconnection circuitry. Depending on the kind of input device to be connected tothe CPU, an appropriate peripheral IC is used.
Output device (Output)
A data output device. The display and printer of a PC, for example, aredata output devices. With a built-in controller, display LEDs, motors, heatersand so on are output devices. Like input devices, output devices are attached toa CPU by way of a "peripheral IC." Depending on the kind of output device tobe connected to the CPU, an appropriate peripheral IC is used.Input devices and output devices are collectively called "peripherals."
1.2 Stored Program Computers
The stored program computer provides a most precise concept of theoperating principles of a computer. It might be safely said that "All moderncomputers are stored program computers." The stored program computer wasfirst conceptualized in 1947 by John von Neumann and is also known as a"Neumann computer."In the stored program computer, the CPU reads instructions stored inmemory in sequence, decodes and executes them.The act of the CPU reading an instruction from memory is called"fetch." Interpreting the fetched instruction to see what operation it defines iscalled "decode." The CPU then proceeds to perform, or "execute," theoperation defined by the instruction. When the CPU has finished executing the
 
 h t t p : / / r e s o u r c e . r e n e s a s . c o m Page 3instruction, it fetches the next instruction. After all, the CPU infinitely repeatsthe following cycle of operations:- Instruction fetch- Instruction decoding- Instruction executionAny microprocessor has a program counter in its CPU. The programcounter always holds the "address of the next instruction to be executed."When the CPU reads an instruction, the program is automatically updated toindicate the address of the next instruction in sequence. The program counterthus ensures that instructions stored in memory will be executed in correctsequence.
Figure 1.2 Operating principles of a stored program computer
1.3 Memory
Memory devices are broadly classified into two categories: ROM (read-only memory) and RAM (random access memory).You can only read stored data from ROM but cannot write to it. Storeddata is preserved intact, however, when the microprocessor is switched off. UseROM to store valuable data that needs to be protected from erasure in times of power failures, typically, programs. Instructions are stored in ROM. Eachmeaningful collection of instructions is a program. Any microprocessor wouldbe inoperable unless it comes up with "programs available for ready use" whenswitched on. ROM fills this need.Data can be written to and read from RAM as desired. Stored datawould be lost, however, once the microprocessor is switched off. Even when

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