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CPU (Central Processing Unit)
The CPU forms the nucleus of any computer by executing instructions.Microprocessors are grouped into 4-bit, 8-bit, 16-bit, and 32-bitmicroprocessors according to the length of bits they can handle at a time. A 4-bit microprocessor can handle four binary digits in a single instance of calculation, but as many as eight digits in two instances and 16 in fourinstances.The microprocessor is also known as a "MPU (microprocessing unit)","microprocessor", or simply "processor."
)A device on which instructions and data are stored. Without memory,programs and data cannot be used. In a microprocessor, ROM (read-onlymemory) and RAM (random access memory) are used.
Input device (Input)
A data input device. The keyboard and mouse of a PC, for example, aredata input devices. With a built-in controller, switches and sensors are inputdevices.These input devices cannot be directly connected to a CPU, but theymust be attached to the CPU by way of a "peripheral IC," containingconnection circuitry. Depending on the kind of input device to be connected tothe CPU, an appropriate peripheral IC is used.
Output device (Output)
A data output device. The display and printer of a PC, for example, aredata output devices. With a built-in controller, display LEDs, motors, heatersand so on are output devices. Like input devices, output devices are attached toa CPU by way of a "peripheral IC." Depending on the kind of output device tobe connected to the CPU, an appropriate peripheral IC is used.Input devices and output devices are collectively called "peripherals."
1.2 Stored Program Computers
The stored program computer provides a most precise concept of theoperating principles of a computer. It might be safely said that "All moderncomputers are stored program computers." The stored program computer wasfirst conceptualized in 1947 by John von Neumann and is also known as a"Neumann computer."In the stored program computer, the CPU reads instructions stored inmemory in sequence, decodes and executes them.The act of the CPU reading an instruction from memory is called"fetch." Interpreting the fetched instruction to see what operation it defines iscalled "decode." The CPU then proceeds to perform, or "execute," theoperation defined by the instruction. When the CPU has finished executing the