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Culture and Psychology - Textbook

Culture and Psychology - Textbook

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Published by silkaiv

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Published by: silkaiv on Apr 03, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Cultural diversity is one of the most important topics in the world today. Herein the United States, we live, work, and play with an increasing number of people from all cultures, countries, and walks of life. New immigrants alonemake up 10% of the total U.S. population, and that does not include all of thecultural diversity that has existed in this country for decades. In many othercountries as well—in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Oceania—people of different countries and cultures come together more today than ever before. While thisincreasingly diversifying world has created a wonderful environment for per-sonal challenge and growth, it also brings with it an increased potential for mis-understandings that can lead to confusion and anger. “Diversity” is a buzzwordfor “difference,” and conflicts and misunderstandings often arise because of these differences.Cultural diversity is one of our biggest challenges. Corporate America is at-tempting to address that challenge through workshops, seminars, and educa-tion in diversity throughout the workforce. The educational system has ad-dressed diversity by hiring and retaining faculty of color and infusing materialrelated to different cultures throughout the curriculum. Government has at-tempted to deal with diversity through policies such as equal employment op-portunity and affirmative action.At the same time, the challenges that face us in the name of cultural diver-sity and intercultural relations also represent our biggest opportunities. If wecan meet those challenges and turn them to our favor, we can actualize a poten-tial in diversity and intercultural relations that will result in far more than thesum of the individual components that comprise that diverse universe. This
An Introduction to the Studyof Culture and Psychology
Chapter 1
sum will result in tremendous personal growth for many individuals, as well aspositive social evolution.It is in this belief that this book was written—to meet the challenge of di-versity and turn that challenge into opportunity. Doing so is not easy. It re-quires each of us to take an honest look at our own cultural background andheritage, their merits and limitations. Fear, rigidity, and sometimes stubbornpride come with any type of honest assessment. Yet without that assessment,we cannot meet the challenge of diversity and improve intercultural relations.In academia, that assessment brings with it fundamental questions about what is taught in our colleges and universities today. To ask how cultural diver-sity colors the nature of the truths and principles of human behavior deliveredin the halls of science is to question the pillars of much of our knowledge about the world and about human behavior. From time to time, we need to shakethose pillars to see just how sturdy they are. This is especially true in the socialsciences and particularly in psychology—the science specifically concernedwith the mental processes and behavioral characteristics of people.
The Goals of Psychology
No field is better equipped to meet the challenge of cultural diversity than psy-chology. And in fact, psychology has met, and continues to meet, the challengeof culture through a subfield known as cross-cultural psychology. To get a bet-ter handle on what cross-cultural psychology is all about, it is important first tohave a good grasp of the goals of psychology.Psychology essentially has two main goals. The first is to build a body of knowledge about people. Psychologists seek to understand behavior when it happens, explain why it happens, and even predict it before it happens. Twoaspects of psychology are important in achieving this goal: the conduct of psy-chological research and the creation of theoretical models of behavior. Researchand theory go hand in hand in psychology.The second goal of psychology involves taking that body of knowledge andapplying it to intervene in people’s lives, hopefully to make those lives better.Psychologists perform various important roles in pursuit of this goal: as thera-pists for individuals, families, and groups; as counselors in schools, universi-ties, churches, and other community organizations; as trainers in businessesand work organizations; and as consultants for police, lawyers, courts, sport organizations, athletes, and teams. Psychologists work on the front lines, deal-ing directly with people to affect their lives in a positive fashion.The two goals of psychology—creating a body of knowledge and applyingthat knowledge—are not mutually exclusive. They share a close relationship, aswell they should. Psychologists who are on the front lines do not work in avacuum; they take what psychology as a field has collectively learned about human behavior and use that knowledge as a basis for their applications andinterventions. This learning initially comes in the form of academic training of counselors, therapists, and consultants as they achieve academic degrees from
An Introduction to the Study of Culture and Psychology

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