Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
P. 1
Consumer Perceived Value: A Determining Factor of Brand Extension Success

Consumer Perceived Value: A Determining Factor of Brand Extension Success

Ratings: (0)|Views: 638|Likes:
Published by Jamie Parfitt
Brand extension can be an extremely profitable marketing strategy, however few extensions are successful and many proposed factors of success are under industry debate. The research in this report addresses the issue of whether consumer perceived value, the overall utilitarian and hedonic consumer assessment of a product, is a determining factor of brand extension success by measurement against perceived fit, an industry accepted success factor. An experiment was conducted to assess the consumer perceived value and perceived fit of four hypothetical brand extensions for two international brands. Results identified consumer perceived value as a significant factor in extension success, with the study indicating that consumers transfer their perceived value of a brand to its extension products, whereby the level of perceived value transfer, and the potential success of an extension, is determined by the degree to which the extension fits the consumer’s perceived understanding of the brand’s image.
Brand extension can be an extremely profitable marketing strategy, however few extensions are successful and many proposed factors of success are under industry debate. The research in this report addresses the issue of whether consumer perceived value, the overall utilitarian and hedonic consumer assessment of a product, is a determining factor of brand extension success by measurement against perceived fit, an industry accepted success factor. An experiment was conducted to assess the consumer perceived value and perceived fit of four hypothetical brand extensions for two international brands. Results identified consumer perceived value as a significant factor in extension success, with the study indicating that consumers transfer their perceived value of a brand to its extension products, whereby the level of perceived value transfer, and the potential success of an extension, is determined by the degree to which the extension fits the consumer’s perceived understanding of the brand’s image.

More info:

Published by: Jamie Parfitt on Apr 03, 2011
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

04/03/2011

 
Ahbfw I# Phymkzz
Gocwvbfy Pfygfk}fj ]hlvf1
 
H Jfzfybkckcn Mhgzoy om Iyhcj Ftzfcwkoc Wvggfww
Iyhcj ftzfcwkoc ghc if hc ftzyfbfl{ pyomkzhilf bhyefzkcn wzyhzfn{, do~f}fy mf~ ftzfcwkocw hyf wvggfwwmvl hcjbhc{ pyopowfj mhgzoyw om wvggfww hyf vcjfy kcjvwzy{ jfihzf# Zdf yfwfhygd kc zdkw yfpoyz hjjyfwwfw zdf kwwvf om~dfzdfy gocwvbfy pfygfk}fj }hlvf, zdf o}fyhll vzklkzhykhc hcj dfjockg gocwvbfy hwwfwwbfcz om h pyojvgz, kw hjfzfybkckcn mhgzoy om iyhcj ftzfcwkoc wvggfww i{ bfhwvyfbfcz hnhkcwz pfygfk}fj mkz, hc kcjvwzy{ hggfpzfj wvggfwwmhgzoy# Hc ftpfykbfcz ~hw gocjvgzfj zo hwwfww zdf gocwvbfy pfygfk}fj }hlvf hcj pfygfk}fj mkz om movy d{pozdfzkghliyhcj ftzfcwkocw moy z~o kczfychzkochl iyhcjw# Yfwvlzw kjfczkmkfj gocwvbfy pfygfk}fj }hlvf hw h wknckmkghcz mhgzoy kcftzfcwkoc wvggfww, ~kzd zdf wzvj{ kcjkghzkcn zdhz gocwvbfyw zyhcwmfy zdfky pfygfk}fj }hlvf om h iyhcj zo kzw ftzfcwkocpyojvgzw, ~dfyfi{ zdf lf}fl om pfygfk}fj }hlvf zyhcwmfy, hcj zdf pozfczkhl wvggfww om hc ftzfcwkoc, kw jfzfybkcfj i{zdf jfnyff zo ~dkgd zdf ftzfcwkoc mkzw zdf gocwvbfy‛w pfygfk}fj vcjfywzhcjkcn om zdf iyhcj‛w kbhnf#
 
8# Kczyojvgzkoc
Lhvcgdkcn h cf~ pyojvgz kczo zdf bhyefz kw z{pkghll{ hc ftpfcwk}f hcj dknd"ykwe ftfygkwf ~kzd mk}f"{fhywvggfww yhzfw fwzkbhzfj hz hppyotkbhzfl{ 60 pfy gfcz$Zh{loy - Ifhyjfc, 9007+# Hw h yfwvlz, h dkndl{ popvlhybhyefzkcn wzyhzfn{ moy bhc{ jfghjfw dhw iffc zo yflfhwfcf~ pyojvgzw vcjfy hlyfhj{ fwzhilkwdfj iyhcj chbfw kczdf dopf zdhz zdf gocwvbfy‛w pyf"ftkwzkcn pfygfpzkoc om zdf iyhcj ~kll fhwf zdf pyojvgz kczyojvgzkoc pyogfww hcjyfjvgf zdf pozfczkhl pyobozkochl ftpfcwfw $]ýlgecfy -Whzzlfy, 900=+#Ocf wvgd bfzdoj om iyhcj jf}flopbfcz kw iyhcjftzfcwkoc, kc ~dkgd hc ftkwzkcn iyhcj fczfyw hc fczkyfl{ jkmmfyfcz pyojvgz ghzfnoy{ $f#n# Ikg gknhyfzzf lkndzfyw hcjzdf J{woc Hkyilhjf dhcj jy{fy+# Iyhcj ftzfcwkocw co~ fxvhzf zo boyf zdhc 40 pfy gfcz om cf~ pyojvgzlhvcgdfw $Efllfy, 9007+# Zdkw kw dhyjl{ wvypykwkcn nk}fczdhz zdf yfwvlzw om ftzfcwk}f yfwfhygd o}fy zdf phwz 70{fhyw dh}f jkwplh{fj zdf powkzk}f fmmfgzw om iyhcjftzfcwkocw oc bhyefz wdhyf, hj}fyzkwkcn fmmkgkfcg{ hcjiyhcj fxvkz{, ~dklwz yfbhkckcn h mhy gdfhpfy hlzfychzk}fzo lhvcgdkcn h cf~ iyhcj $Zh{loy - Ifhyjoc, 9009+#Do~f}fy ~dklwz hc ftzyfbfl{ pyomkzhilf zfgdckxvf,zdf wvggfww om h iyhcj ftzfcwkoc kw wzkll mhkyl{ vcgfyzhkcjvf zo kzw dknd jfpfcjfcgf oc gocwvbfy pfygfpzkocw#Hggoyjkcn zo h yfpoyz i{ Fycwz - [ovcn hcj HGCkflwfc$8;;;+, zdfyf kw hc hppyotkbhzfl{ 40 pfy gfcz mhklvyf yhzfkc zdf mhwz"bo}kcn gocwvbfy nooj ghzfnoy{ iyhcjftzfcwkocw# Hjjkzkochll{, hw h iyhcj ifgobfw iyohjfy kckzw pyojvgz ommfykcn kzw kbhnf ghc fhwkl{ ifgobf jklvzfj$Boczhcfy - Pkch, 900;+ hcj kzw pyojvgz glhwwhwwogkhzkocw jkbkckwdfj $Hhefy, 8;;0+, hmmfgzkcn iozdoyknkchl hcj cf~ pyojvgzw# Zdfyfmoyf, yfwfhygd mkcjkcnwoc gocwvbfy hzzkzvjfw zo~hyjw ftzfcwkocw, zdf zyhcwmfyom hwwogkhzkocw, hcj zdf mhgzoyw om iyhcj ftzfcwkocwvggfww hyf dkndl{ }hlvhilf zo zdf bhyefzkcn ~oylj#Oyknkchzkcn ~kzd Hhefy hcj Efllfy $8;;0+ bhc{ wzvjkfw dh}f iffc gocjvgzfj, oizhkckcn kcwkndzw kczo zdfmhgzoyw om iyhcj ftzfcwkoc wvggfww hcj hwwfbilkcn ~oyekcn bojflw $f#n# Gqfllhy, 90075 Boczhcfy - Pkch,900;5 ]ýlgecfy - Whzzlfy, 900=+# Zdfyf kw wzkll bvgdjfihzf, do~f}fy, o}fy zdf hggvyhg{ hcj hvzdfczkgkz{ om zdfwf bojflw hcj zdf kcglvwkoc, oy wzyfcnzd, om phyzkgvlhymhgzoyw kjfczkmkfj# Ef{ wzvjkfw dh}f iffc yfplkghzfj ~kzdhlzfyfj }hykhilfw $loghzkoc, whbplf, pyojvgz, fzg#+, hcjgocwfxvfczl{ hbfcjfj zo bffz cf~ mkcjkcnw $f#n#Iozzoblf{ - Doljfc, 9008+# Kc 90 {fhyw om yfwfhygd,hppyotkbhzfl{ 86 mhgzoyw om ftzfcwkoc wvggfww dh}f iffcpyo}fc wknckmkghczl{ yflf}hcz $]ýlgecfy - Whzzlfy, 900=+,do~f}fy co wzvj{ dhw lfj h jfzhklfj kc}fwzknhzkoc kczo zdfhmmfgzw om gocwvbfy pfygfk}fj }hlvf oc iyhcj ftzfcwkocw#Zdkw kc}fwzknhzkoc wdhll bhef zdyff goczykivzkocw zozdf yfwfhygd om iyhcj ftzfcwkoc wvggfww zdyovnd zdfmollo~kcn yfwfhygd xvfwzkocw18#
 
Kw zdfyf h yflhzkocwdkp ifz~ffc zdf gocwvbfypfygfk}fj }hlvf om zdf oyknkchl hcj cf~ pyojvgzkc h iyhcj ftzfcwkoc?9#
 
Kw zdfyf h yflhzkocwdkp ifz~ffc zdf mkz om h iyhcjftzfcwkoc hcj zdf gocwvbfy pfygfk}fj }hlvf om zdf cf~ pyojvgz?7#
 
Kw zdfyf h jkmmfyfcgf ifz~ffc h iyhcj ftzfcwkoc‛wpyojvgz"ghzfnoy{ hcj iyhcj"kbhnf mkz kc yflhzkoczo gocwvbfy pfygfk}fj }hlvf zyhcwmfy?
 
9# Lkzfyhzvyf yf}kf~ hcj d{pozdfwfw
9#8 Gocwvbfy pfygfk}fj }hlvf
Zdfyf kw hc f}fy"kcgyfhwkcn hyyh{ om hlbowz kjfczkghlgobpfzkcn pyojvgzw kc wffbkcnl{ f}fy{ bhyefz, fhgdpowkzkocfj ~kzd h bhynkchll{ jkmmfyfcz mfhzvyf, xvhlkz{ hcjpykgf ommfykcn# Kc zdkw dkndl{ gobpfzkzk}f ~oylj, iyhcjwhyf ifgobkcn pyonyfwwk}fl{ boyf gocwvbfy"mogvwfj,wffekcn zo whzkwm{ pfoplf‛w cffjw hcj pyo}kjf }hlvf zogocwvbfyw kc oyjfy zo yfzhkc zdfky lo{hlz{ $Dhycfzz, 8;;4+#Kc kzw wkbplfwz moyb, gocwvbfy pfygfk}fj }hlvf kwjfmkcfj hggoyjkcn zo Lf}kcw $9080+ hw zdf jkmmfyfcgfifz~ffc zdf pfygfk}fj ifcfmkzw yfgfk}fj hcj pfygfk}fjgowzw wvwzhkcfj myob zdf pvygdhwf, vwhnf hcj jkwpowhl om h pyojvgz# Zdkw “~dhz K nfz moy ~dhz K nk}f‒ $Qfkzdhbl,8;44, p 87+ yflhzkocwdkp kw gobbocl{ hpplkfj kc h }hlvf"moy"bocf{ gocgfpzvhlkqhzkoc, ~kzd h zyhjf"omm ifz~ffczdf }hykhilfw om pykgf hcj xvhlkz{ $Hhefy, 8;;=5 Qfkzdhbl,8;44+# Qfkzdhbl‛w $8;44+ wzvj{ do~f}fy jkwplh{fj zdfo}fyhll kjkow{cgyhzkg hcj wviafgzk}f chzvyf om zdf gocgfpzom pfygfk}fj }hlvf moy bocf{, kc ~dkgd gocwvbfy‛wjfmkckzkocw }hykfj ~kjfl{ myob lo~ pykgfw hcj whlfw, zozdf ihlhcgf ifz~ffc pykgf hcj xvhlkz{, zo ~dhzf}fy zdf{ jfwkyf myob h pyojvgz, zo h gobikchzkoc om hll om zdfhio}f#Zdf pykgf"xvhlkz{ yflhzkoc, hw ~fll hw ifkcn dkndl{ wviafgzk}f hcj bozk}hzkoc"jyk}fc, kw hlwo h wkbplkwzkg hcjchyyo~ wghlf om gocwvbfy pfygfk}fj }hlvf zdhz mhklw zogocwkjfy wvgd mhgzoyw hw goczkcvfj gocwvbfy"iyhcjyflhzkocwdkpw, fbozkochl yfwpocwfw zo pyojvgzw, zdf wogkhlmhgzoyw zdhz jyk}f ovy pvygdhwf jfgkwkocw hcj zdf mhgzzdhz gocwvbfyw ghc gyfhzf h nfcfyhlkqfj pfygfk}fj }hlvf~kzdovz f}fy pvygdhwkcn oy vwkcn h pyojvgz# Wdfzd,Cf~bhc hcj Nyoww $8;;8+ zdvw pyopowfj zdhz gocwvbfypfygfk}fj }hlvf if zdf mvcgzkoc om mk}f kcjfpfcjfcz}hlvf jkbfcwkocw1 wogkhl, fbozkochl, mvcgzkochl, fpkwzfbkghcj gocjkzkochl#^oyekcn ~kzd zdkw movcjhzkochl bojfl W~ffcf{ hcjWovzhy $9008+ jf}kwfj h 8;"kzfb bfhwvyf om gocwvbfypfygfk}fj }hlvf, chbfj —PFY]HL‛, kczfcjfj moygocwvbfy jvyhilf noojw# Zdyovnd goczkcvfj lkzfyhzvyf,mogvw nyovp hcj whbplf wvy}f{ yfwfhygd zdf{ pyopowfjzdhz ~dklwz Wdfzd fz hl#‛w $8;;8+ mvcgzkochl jkbfcwkocwdo~fj zo if h pyf}hlfcz kcjkghzoy om }hlvf, kz ~hwgobpykwfj om flfbfczw oyknkchzkcn myob zdf jkmmfykcn }hykhilfw om pykgf $hcj }hlvf moy bocf{+ hcj xvhlkz{ $hcjpfymoybhcgf+, hcj wvnnfwzfj zdhz zdf{ if zyfhzfj kcwzfhjhw wfphyhzf jkbfcwkocw $W~ffcf{ - Wovzhy, 9008+#Hjjkzkochll{, zdf{ yfbo}fj zdf fpkwzfbkg hcj gocjkzkochljkbfcwkocw hlzonfzdfy moy zdfky lhge om wzyfcnzd hw hckcjkghzoy hcj gocjkzkochl chzvyf, yfwpfgzk}fl{ $W~ffcf{ - Wovzhy, 9008+#Zdf —PFY]HL‛ bfhwvyf kw zdf bowz gobpyfdfcwk}fbojfl hcj zdvw wdhll if vwfj hw zdf ihwkw moybfhwvyfbfcz om gocwvbfy pfygfk}fj }hlvf kc zdkwyfwfhygd# Gocwvbfy pfygfk}fj }hlvf, dfcgfmoyzd, kwjfmkcfj hggoyjkcn zo W~ffcf{ - Wovzhy $9008+ hw zdfo}fyhll vzklkzhykhc hcj dfjockg gocwvbfy hwwfwwbfcz om hpyojvgz kc yflhzkoc zo movy }hlvf jkbfcwkocw1xvhlkz{/pfymoybhcgf, pykgf/}hlvf moy bocf{, fbozkochlhcj wogkhl#Hhefy - Efllfy $8;;0+ wvnnfwzfj zdhz hzzykivzfw om zdfoyknkchl phyfcz iyhcj‛w pyojvgz zyhcwmfy zo zdf ftzfcwkoc,hcj zdhz wvgd hzzykivzf zyhcwmfyw hyf h jfzfybkckcn mhgzoykc iyhcj ftzfcwkoc wvggfww# Kz zdvw wffbw plhvwkilf zdhzgocwvbfy pfygfk}fj }hlvf, ocf om Hhefy‛w $8;;=+ zfcbfhwvyfw om iyhcj fxvkz{, govlj if wvgd hc hzzykivzf, hcjzdfyfmoyf ~f ghc d{pozdfwkqf1
D8#
 
Zdfyf kw h powkzk}f yflhzkocwdkp ifz~ffc zdfgocwvbfy pfygfk}fj }hlvf om zdf oyknkchl hcj cf~ pyojvgz kc h iyhcj ftzfcwkoc#
9#9 Pfygfk}fj mkz om h iyhcj ftzfcwkoc
Hggoyjkcn zo Bhyzkcfq fz hl# $900;+, pfygfk}fj mkz kw“vcjovizfjl{ zdf bowz gkzfj wvggfww mhgzoy kc zdfyfwfhygd oc iyhcj ftzfcwkocw‒ $Bhyzkcfq fz hl, p# 70>+#^dfc ]ýlgecfy - Whzzlfy $900=+ kjfczkmkfj 80 mhgzoyw om iyhcj ftzfcwkoc wvggfww myob h gobpklhzkoc om :6fbpkykghl wzvjkfw, zdfky yfwfhygd jkwplh{fj zdhz zdf mkzifz~ffc zdf phyfcz iyhcj hcj zdf ftzfcwkoc pyojvgz ~hwh bhaoy goczykivzkcn mhgzoy zo~hyjw iyhcj wvggfww#Hggoyjkcn zo Idhz hcj Yfjj{ $9008+, zdf pfygfk}fjmkz, oy pfygfk}fj wkbklhykz{, kw zdf “gocwvbfyw‛ o}fyhllavjnbfcz om zdf ftzfcwkoc‛w mkz ~kzd zdf phyfcz iyhcj‒$Idhz - Yfjj{, p# 88:+# Oc h pw{gdolonkghl lf}fl, ~kzdzdf lhvcgd om h iyhcj ftzfcwkoc gocwvbfyw hyf moygfj zojf}flop cf~ iyhcj hwwogkhzkocw hcj, kc jokcn wo, yf"hjhpz zdfky gonckzk}f wzyvgzvyf $Phye fz hl#, 8;;7+# Zdfjfnyff om pfygfk}fj mkz plh{w h }fy{ kbpoyzhcz yolf kc zdkwbfczhl pyogfww, zdvw bhekcn kz wvgd h wknckmkghcz wvggfwwmhgzoy $Gqfllhy, 9007+#Hw zdf bowz, oy ocf om zdf bowz, kcmlvfczkhl mhgzoyw om iyhcj ftzfcwkoc wvggfww, pfygfk}fj mkz kw hc kjfhl }hykhilfzo bfhwvyf hnhkcwz kc yflhzkoc zo gocwvbfy pfygfk}fj}hlvf zyhcwmfy# Vcjfy zdf hwwvbpzkoc zdhz zdkw zyhcwmfy kwhc kcmlvfcgkcn mhgzoy kc iyhcj ftzfcwkoc wvggfww, ~f ghczdvw d{pozdfwkqf zdhz1
D9#
 
Zdfyf kw h powkzk}f yflhzkocwdkp ifz~ffc pfygfk}fjmkz hcj zdf zyhcwmfy om gocwvbfy pfygfk}fj }hlvf kch iyhcj ftzfcwkoc#Yfwfhygd oc pfygfk}fj mkz wzfbw myob zdyffpw{gdolonkghl hcj gocwvbfy jfgkwkoc"bhekcn zdfoykfw1gonckzk}f gocwkwzfcg{ zdfoy{ $Dfkjfy, 8;64+, hmmfgzzyhcwmfy zdfoy{ $^ykndz, 8;>6+, hcj ghzfnoykqhzkoc zdfoy{ $Gofc - Ihwv, 8;4>+# Hhefy hcj Efllfy $8;;0+jfzfybkcfj, ihwfj vpoc zdkw zdfoyfzkghl ihgenyovcj, zdhzzdf pfygfk}fj mkz om h pyojvgz ~ovlj if h mhgzoy om iyhcj
 
ftzfcwkoc wvggfww, ~kzd zdfky yfwfhygd pyfwfczkcn h jkyfgzyflhzkocwdkp ifz~ffc mkz hcj gocwvbfy hzzkzvjf zo~hyjw hpyojvgz#Hhefy hcj Efllfy $8;;0+ pvz moy~hyj zdf mkywz bojflom pfygfk}fj mkz, gocwkwzkcn om zdyff jkbfcwkocw1gobplfbfcz, hc kcjkghzkoc om zdf ftzfcz zo ~dkgd zdfftzfcwkoc pyojvgz ghc if vwfj hlocnwkjf zdf oyknkchl5wviwzkzvzf, zdf ftzfcz zo ~dkgd zdf ftzfcwkoc pyojvgzgovlj if vwfj hw hc hlzfychzk}f zo zdf oyknkchl5 hcjzyhcwmfy, zdf ftzfcz zo ~dkgd zdf gobphc{ kw pfygfk}fj zoif hilf zo bhcvmhgzvyf zdf ftzfcwkoc pyojvgz# Zdkwbojfl ~hw dfh}kl{ ihwfj kc fgocobkg zfybw, jk}kjkcn jkbfcwkocw ifz~ffc jfbhcj"wkjf $gobplkbfcz hcjwviwzkzvzf+ hcj wvppl{"wkjf $zyhcwmfy+, hcj ~hw zdfpyfjobkchcz bojfl moy bvgd om zdf jfghjf#Idhz hcj Yfjj{ $9008+ xvfwzkocfj zdf lhge om iyhcjkbhnf gocwkjfyhzkocw kc zdkw ghzfnoy{"mogvwfj bojfl,pyopowkcn hc ftphcwkoc hcj yf"hyyhcnfbfcz om zdfbojfl zo nk}f kz z~o jkbfcwkocw1 pyojvgz"ghzfnoy{ mkz,zdf gocwvbfyw‛ pfygfpzkocw om zdf wkbklhykzkfw ifz~ffczdf pyojvgz ghzfnoykfw om zdf phyfcz iyhcj hcjftzfcwkoc5 hcj iyhcj"kbhnf mkz, zdf gocwvbfyw‛pfygfpzkocw om zdf wkbklhykz{ ifz~ffc zdf ftzfcwkoc‛wkbhnf hcj zdf iyhcj kbhnf# Idhz hcj Yfjj{ $9008+wpfgkm{ zdhz zdfky pyojvgz"ghzfnoy{ mkz jkbfcwkoc ifgocgfpzvhlkqfj pvyfl{ oc h pyojvgz ghzfnoy{ ocl{ ihwkw$k#f# bfhwvyfj ~kzdovz zdf bfczkoc om hc{ iyhcj chbfw+#Zdkw wfphyhzkoc ifz~ffc ghzfnoy{ hcj iyhcjwkbklhykzkfw wzfbw myob zdf yfwfhygd om Iyockhygq{e hcjHlih $8;;:+, ~do wvnnfwz zdhz zdf gonckzk}f wzyvgzvyfmoybfj myob iyhcj hwwogkhzkoc plh{w h nyfhzfy yolf kcpfygfk}fj mkz zdhc zdf jkmmfyfcgf kc pyojvgz ghzfnoy{#^kzd zdkw kc bkcj, ~f ghc zdfyfmoyf d{pozdfwkqf zdhz1
D7#
 
Pyojvgz ghzfnoy{ mkz dhw h lfwwfy fmmfgz ocgocwvbfy pfygfk}fj }hlvf zyhcwmfy zdhc iyhcjkbhnf mkz#
7# Bfzdojolon{
Zdf bfzdojolon{ zo zfwz zdf d{pozdfwfw gocwkwzfj om h xvhczkzhzk}f ftpfykbfcz vzklkqkcn yfhl iyhcjw hcjd{pozdfzkghl ftzfcwkocw, h zfgdckxvf vwfj kc bvgdpyf}kovw yfwfhygd $Hhefy - Efllfy, 8;;05 Bhyzkcfq fz hl#,900;5 Boczhcfy - Pkch, 900;5 fzg#+# Kc oyjfy zobhtkbkqf }hlkjkz{, zdf ftpfykbfcz vwfj z~o iyhcjw om jkmmfykcn pfygfk}fj }hlvf, fhgd ~kzd z~o ftzfcwkocw om jkmmfykcn pfygfk}fj mkz#
7#8 Whbplf
H whbplf om :0 vcjfynyhjvhzf hcj powznyhjvhzfwzvjfczw, iozd bhlf hcj mfbhlf, myob Iocj Vck}fywkz{ ~fyf wflfgzfj moy zdkw wzvj{ zdyovnd goc}fckfcgfwhbplkcn# Goc}fckfcgf whbplfw om wzvjfczw hyfgobbocplhgf kc wzvjkfw om iyhcj pfygfpzkoc $Hhefy -Efllfy, 8;;05 Bhyzkcfq fz hl#, 900;5 Boczhcfy - Pkch,900;5 Zh{loy - Ifhyjoc, 9009+ jvf zo wzvjfczw ifkcn nooj wviwzkzvzfw moy gocwvbfyw $Pkzz - Cfl, 8;4;+ hcjzdf fhwf om hggfww zo ~kllkcn yfwpocjfczw h vck}fywkz{ ghbpvw pyo}kjfw#Yfwpocjfczw mfll ifz~ffc zdf hnfw om 84 hcj :0, hcj~fyf h bktzvyf om iozd Hvwzyhlkhc hcj kczfychzkochlwzvjfczw, jvf zo zdf vck}fywkz{‛w popvlhzkoc ifkcn hppyotkbhzfl{ 60& kczfychzkochl# Zdkw whbplf ~hw,do~f}fy, h nfcfyhlkqhzkoc om zdf popvlhzkoc jvf zo wvgdwhbplf lkbkzhzkocw hw yfwpocjfcz hnf, }oghzkoc hcjwogko"fgocobkg wzhzvw#
7#9 Pyf"zfwzw
Pykoy zo zdf bhkc wzvj{, z~o pyf"zfwzw ~fyf gocjvgzfj,i{ bfhcw om h gobpvzfy wvy}f{, ~kzd h goc}fckfcgfwhbplf om > hcj : vcjfynyhjvhzf wzvjfczw myob IocjVck}fywkz{, yfwpfgzk}fl{#Zdf hkb om zdf mkywz pyf"zfwz ~hw zo kjfczkm{ z~oiyhcjw ~kzd jkwwkbklhy pfygfk}fj }hlvfw zo if vwfj ~kzdkczdf bhkc wzvj{# Zdf iyhcjw gdowfc moy zdkw pyf"zfwz ~fyfhll ~fll"eco~c nloihl iyhcjw, zo ghzfy moy zdf lhynfkczfychzkochl pyopoyzkoc om zdf whbplf, ~kzd lkbkzfjiyhcj ftzfcwkoc yhcnfw, wvgd zdhz zdf oyknkchl pyojvgz$w+,hcj hc{ pozfczkhl lkcf ftzfcwkocw, jfmkcf zdf iyhcj kc zdfbkcj om zdf gocwvbfy#Phyzkgkphczw hwwfwwfj wkt iyhcjw ~kzd h mk}f"pokczLkefyz wghlf $8 2 Lo~/6 2 Dknd+ oc zdfky mhbklkhykz{ hcjhc flfbfczhy{ bfhwvyf om gocwvbfy pfygfk}fj }hlvf1xvhlkz{, pfymoybhcgf, }hlvf moy bocf{ hcj jfwkyf zo o~c
θ
2 0#49+# Zdf zfwz yfwvlzw kjfczkmkfj
Golnhzf 
hcj
Jfll 
hw~fll eco~c iyhcjw $M
G
2 :#4=5 M
J
2 :#8:+, ~kzd jkmmfyfczpfygfk}fj }hlvfw $GP] 
G
2 86#:75 GP] 
J
2 88#>8+# Jvfzo zdf kczfychzkochl chzvyf om zdf iyhcjw wflfgzfj, zdfyfwvlzw moy mhbklkhykz{ ~fyf hll dknd, yfjvgkcn zdfkbpoyzhcgf om zdkw }hykhilf hw h mhgzoy moy wflfgzkoc#Zdf wfgocj pyf"zfwz hkbfj zo kjfczkm{ z~o lonkghliyhcj ftzfcwkocw $Hhefy - Efllfy, 8;;0+ ~kzd jkmmfyfczpfygfk}fj mkzw moy fhgd om zdf z~o iyhcjw wflfgzfj myobzdf mkywz pyf"zfwz# Moy fhgd iyhcj, phyzkgkphczw hwwfwwfj,~kzd mk}f"pokcz Lkefyz wghlfw $8 2 Jkwhnyff/6 2 Hnyff+zdf mkz om movy d{pozdfzkghl ftzfcwkocw i{ zdfkygobplkbfcz lf}fl, wviwzkzvzf lf}fl hcj iyhcj kbhnf mkz $ 
θ
 2 0#46+# Zdf yfwvlzw om zdkw pyf"zfwz kjfczkmkfj —oyhl nfl‛hcj —lkp ihlb‛ $G
NFL
2 4#965 G
IHLB
2 =#>6+ hw d{pozdfzkghliyhcj ftzfcwkocw ~kzd jkmmfykcn lf}flw om mkz moy
Golnhzf 
,hcj —ghy whzfllkzf ch}knhzkoc‛ hcj —nhbf gocwolf‛ $J
WHZ
280#>65 J
NHBF
2 4#>6+ moy
Jfll 
#
7#7 Wzvj{ jfwknc hcj pyogfjvyf
Pyf"zfwzkcn yfwvlzfj kc zdf wflfgzkoc om z~o iyhcjw om jkmmfykcn gocwvbfy pfygfk}fj }hlvf $H,
Golnhzf5 
hcj I,
Jfll 
+, fhgd ~kzd z~o pozfczkhl iyhcj ftzfcwkocw om jkmmfykcn lf}flw om pfygfk}fj mkz $HT 
8
,
Golnhzf 
lkp ihlb5HT 
9
,
Golnhzf 
oyhl nfl5 IT 
8
,
Jfll 
ghy whzfllkzf ch}knhzkoc5hcj IT 
9
,
Jfll 
nhbf gocwolf+# Hjjkzkochll{, moy fhgd

Activity (2)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->