2equally strong, covalent solids are often very hard and they are notoriously difficult tomelt. Diamond is the hardest natural substance and it melts at 3550°C.
are salts, such as NaCl, that are held together by the strong force of attractionbetween ions of opposite charge. Because this force of attraction depends on the squareof the distance between the positive and negative charges, the strength of an ionic bonddepends on the radii of the ions that form the solid. As these ions become larger, the bondbecomes weaker.The force of attraction between atoms in
, such as copper and aluminum,or alloys, such as brass and bronze, are metallic bonds. Metal atoms don't have enoughelectrons to fill their valence shells by sharing electrons with their immediate neighbors.Therefore many atoms, instead of just two, share electrons in the valence shell.Note:
All ionic solids and most covalent solids are crystalline.
All solid metals, under normal circumstances, are crystalline.
The ideal crystal has an infinite 3D repetition of identical units, which may beatoms or molecules.
Differences between Solids and Crystals
The term "liquid crystal" seems, at first glance, to be a contradiction, as we areaccustomed to equating crystals with solids. There are some important differencesbetween solids and crystals, however. In a crystal, molecules are ordered, but notnecessarily held rigidly in place. In a crystal, molecules are ordered, but not necessarilyheld rigidly in place. In contrast, in solids the orientation and positions of the atoms, ionsor molecules are fixed, but not necessarily ordered with respect to each other. Often, bothof these properties coincide in the same material to give rise to a crystalline solid.
Difference between Amorphous Solids and Crystalline Solids
Amorphous Solids Crystalline Solids
Solids that don't have definitegeometrical shape.They have characteristic geometrical shapeAmorphous solids don't have particularmelting point. They melt over a wide rangeof temperature.They have sharp melting pointPhysical properties of amorphous solids aresame in different direction, i.e. amorphoussolids are isotropicPhysical properties of crystalline solids aregenerally different in different directions.This phenomenon is known as Anisotropy.Amorphous solids are asymmetrical When crystalline solids are rotated about anaxis, their appearance does not change.This shows that they are symmetricalAmorphous solids don't break atfixed cleavage planes.Crystalline solids cleavage along particulardirection at fixed cleavage planes.