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lec 7

# lec 7

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04/03/2011

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LECTURE 7GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OFDATA

1.

Pressure
versus
t
empera
t
ure (P-T)2.

Pressure
vs.
vol
ume (P-
v
)3.

Tempera
t
ure
vs.
vol
ume (T-
v
)4.

Tempera
t
ure
vs.
en
t
r
o
py (T-s)5.

En
th
a
l
py
vs.
en
t
r
o
py (
h
-s)6.

Pressure
vs.
en
th
a
l
py (P-
h
)
The term saturation temperature designates thetemperature at which vaporization takes place.For water at 99.6 C the saturation pressure is0.1 M Pa, and for water at 0.1 Mpa, thesaturation temperature is 99.6 C.

I
f a substance exists as liquid at the saturationtemperature and pressure it is called saturatedliquid.
I
f the temperature is of the liquid is lower thansaturation temperature at the existing pressureit is called sub-cooled liquid or compressedliquid.1.

When a substance exists as part liquid andpart vapor at the saturation temperature, itsquality is defined as the ratio of the mass of vapor to the total mass.2.

I
f a substance exists as vapor at thesaturation temperature, it is called asaturated vapor.3.

When the vapor is at a temperature greater than the saturation temperature, it is said toexist as superheated vapor.4.

At the critical point, the saturated liquid andsaturated vapor state are identical.5.

At supercritical pressures, the substance issimply termed fluid rather than liquid or vapor.

6.

I
f the initial pressure at ±20
0
C is 0.260 kPa,heat transfer results in increase of temperature to ±10
0
C.
I
ce passes directlyfrom the solid phase to vapor phase.7.

At the triple point (0.6113 kPa) and atemperature of ±20
0
C, let heat transfer increase the temperature until it reaches0.01
0
C. At this point, further heat transfer may cause some ice to become vapor andsome to become liquid. The three phasesmay be present simultaneously inequilibrium.
Tab
l
es
of
T
h
erm
od
ynamic Pr
o
per
t
ies
Tables of thermodynamic properties of manysubstances are available, and in general, all thesehave same form.Steam tables are selected because steam is usedextensively in power plants and industrialprocesses.