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The Main Copy

The Main Copy

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Published by shuvrachowdhury
cancer and bangladesh
cancer and bangladesh

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Published by: shuvrachowdhury on Apr 03, 2011
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02/05/2013

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 1
Introduction
Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division leading to growth of abnormal tissue. It is believed that cancers arise from both genetic and environmental factors thatlead to aberrant growth regulation of a stem cell population, or by the dedifferentiation of moremature cell types. Cell multiplication (proliferation) is a normal physiologic process that occursin almost all tissues and under many circumstances, such as response to injury, immuneresponses, or to replace cells those have died or have been shed as a part of their lifecycle (intissues such as skin or the mucous membranes of the digestive tract). Normally the balancebetween proliferation and cell death is tightly regulated to ensure the integrity of organs andtissues. Mutations in DNA that lead to cancer appear to disrupt these orderly processes.The uncontrolled and often rapid proliferation of cells can lead to either a benign tumor or amalignant tumor (cancer). Benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body or invade other tissues, and they are rarely a threat to life. Malignant tumors can invade other organs, spread todistant locations (metastasize) and become life threatening.
 
 2
Cancer Symptoms Can Be Divided into Three Groups
 
 
L
ocal symptoms: are restricted to the site of the primary cancer. They can include lumpsor swelling (tumor), hemorrhage (bleeding from the skin, mouth or anus), ulceration andpain. Although local pain commonly occurs in advanced cancer, the initial swelling isoften painless.
 
Metastatic symptoms: are due to the spread of cancer to other locations in the body. Theycan include enlarged lymph nodes (which can be felt or sometimes seen under the skin),hepatomegaly (enlarged liver) or splenomegaly (enlarged spleen) which can be felt in theabdomen, pain or fracture of affected bones, and neurological symptoms.
 
Systemic symptoms: occur due to distant effects of the cancer that are not related todirect or metastatic spread. Some of these effects can include weight loss (poor appetiteand cachexia), fatigue, excessive sweating (especially night sweats), anemia (low redblood cell count) and other specific conditions termed paraneoplastic phenomena. Thesemay be mediated by immunological or hormonal signals from the cancer cells.None of these are diagnostic, as many of these symptoms commonly occur in patients who donot have cancer.
 
 3
Causes of Cancer 
Cancers are primarily an environmental disease with 90-95% of cases attributed toenvironmental factors and 5-10% due to genetics. Environmental, as used by cancer researchers,means any cause that is not genetic. Common environmental factors that contribute to cancer death include: tobacco (25-30%), diet and obesity (30-35%), infections (15-20%), radiation (bothionizing and no ionizing, up to 10%), stress, lack of physical activity, and environmentalpollutants.
Chemicals
The incidence of lung cancer is highly correlated with smoking. Cancer pathogenesis is traceableback to DNA mutations that impact cell growth and metastasis. Substances that cause DNAmutations are known as mutagens, and mutagensthat cause cancers are known as carcinogens.Particular substances have been linked to specifictypes of cancer. Tobacco smoking is created withmany forms of cancer, and causes 90% of lungcancer. Many mutagens are also carcinogens, butsome carcinogens are not mutagens. Alcohol is anexample of a chemical carcinogen that is not amutagen. Such chemicals may promote cancersthrough stimulating the rate of cell division. Faster rates of replication leaves less time for repair enzymes to repair damaged DNA during DNA replication, increasing the likelihood of amutation. Decades of research has demonstrated the link between tobacco use and cancer in thelung, larynx, head, neck, stomach, bladder, kidney, esophagus and pancreas. Tobacco smokecontains over fifty known carcinogens, includingnitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.Tobacco is responsible for about one in three of allcancer deaths in the developed world, and about onein five worldwide.
L
ung cancer death rates in theUnited States have mirrored smoking patterns, withincreases in smoking followed by dramatic increasesin lung cancer death rates and, more recently[when?,decreases in smoking followed by decreases in lung cancer death rates in men. However, thenumbers of smokers worldwide is still rising, leading to what some organizations have describedas the tobacco epidemic.

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