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Bjt_2 Regjimet e Operimit

Bjt_2 Regjimet e Operimit

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Published by: Programmer on Apr 03, 2011
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12/27/2012

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Bipolar Junction Transistor Circuits
 
Biasing.
BJT Operating Regimes.Let’s start by reviewing the operating regimes of the BJT. They are graphically shown onFigure 1along with the device schematic and relevant parameters.
CE 
B4
B3
B2
B1
I =0
B
SaturationActivereakdownCutoff 
B
B
BE 
CE 
++--
 
Figure 1. BJT characteristic curve
The characteristics of each region of operation are summarized below.1.
 
cutoff region:
 B-E junction is reverse biased. No current flow2.
 
saturation region:
 B-E and C-B junctions are forward biased
Ic
reaches a maximum which is independent of 
B
and
β 
.. No control.
CE B
V
<
3.
 
active region:
 B-E junction is forward biased, C-B junction is reverse biased,
BE CE C
V V
< <
C B
I
β 
=
. Control4.
 
breakdown region:
 
and exceed specificationsdamage to the transistor 
CE 
22.071/6.071 Spring 2006, Chaniotakis and Cory
1
 
We will focus on operation in the active region. In this region of operation the model of theBJT is shown onFigure 2
BBE B
β 
B
 
Figure 2. Large signal model of the BJT operating in the active region
The large signal model represents a simple state machine. The two states of interest are:
1.
 
B-E junction is forward biased, 0.7
BE 
=
Volts, current flows and the BJT is on
 2.
 
B-E junction is off, no current flows and the BJT is off.
 
We are interested in using the transistor as an amplifier with amplification
A
as shown onFigure 3for which
0
V AV 
=
 
0
A
 
Figure 3. Amplifier symbol
For the generic BJT circuit the voltage transfer characteristic curve (output voltage versusinput voltage) is shown onFigure 4.For amplification, the transistor must operate in theactive or linear region.
22.071/6.071 Spring 2006, Chaniotakis and Cory
2
 
 
0
Active regime(large slope) amplificationSaturationCutoff V (sat)
CE 
V (on)
BE 
 
Figure 4. Voltage transfer curve for BJT circuit
This presents a challenge since we normally have a signal that is carried by, for example, atime dependent voltage which is permitted to go to (or through) zero. Now we can notsimply apply this voltage to the base since the transistor would be moving in and out of thelinear operation region.Consider the amplifier circuit of Figure 5.We will qualitatively investigate the voltagetransfer characteristics of this circuit for two cases of the input signal . These two casesare graphically illustrated onFigure 6(a) and (b).
 
B
CC 
 
1
VoR
B
R
 Figure 5. Amplifier circuit
The fluctuations of the input signal onFigure 6(a) result in excursions outside the activeregion of operation. As shown on the plot a portion of the signal is clipped. Compare this tothe case shown onFigure 6(b). Here the input signal has been shifted to the middle of the
22.071/6.071 Spring 2006, Chaniotakis and Cory
3

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