(c) Republic Acts: passed by Congress of the Philippines 1946-1972 and from 1987Note: Statutes may be referred to by its serial number, or its title.
ENACTMENT OF STATUTES
Legislative power is the power to make, alter, and repeals laws.1. Under the 1973 and freedom constitution, the president exercised legislative power which remainedvalid until repealed.2. LGU can enact ordinances within their own jurisdiction, but such laws are inferior and subordinate tothe laws of the state. (Primicias v. Municipality of Urdaneta).3. Administrative or executive officer can make rules and regulations to implement specific laws.
Essential feature of the legislative function is the determination of the legislative policy and its formulationand promulgation as a defined and binding rule of conduct
A bill is a proposed legislative measure introduced by a member of Congress for enactment into law.
Passage of a bill:1. A bill shall embrace only one subject which shall be expressed in the title thereof. It shall be signedby its author and filed with the Secretary of the House.2. A bill may originate in the lower or upper house except appropriation, revenue or tariff bills, billsauthorizing increase of public debt, bills of local application, private bills, which shall originateexclusively in the House of Representatives.3. A bill is approved by either house after it has gone three readings on separate days except when thePresident certifies to the necessity of its immediate enactment.4. Steps:(a) The Secretary reports for the first reading, which consists of reading the number and title of thebill, followed by its referral to the appropriate Committee for study and recommendation.(b) Second Reading: the bill shall be read in full with the amendments proposed by the Committee, if any, unless copies thereof are distributed and such reading is dispensed with. After theamendments, the bill will be voted on second reading.(c) Third reading: the bill approved on second reading will be submitted for final vote by yeas andnays. No amendments may be introduced.(d) The bill approved on the third reading by one house is transmitted to the other house forconcurrence, which will follow the same procedures as a bill originally filed with it.(e) If the other house introduces amendments and the House from which it originated does not agreewith said amendments, the differences will be settled by the Conference Committee of bothchambers, whose report or recommendation thereon will have to be approved by both Houses inorder that it will be considered passed by Congress and thereafter sent to the President foraction.(f) If the President shall veto it, and if after such consideration, two- thirds of all the Members of such House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the otherHouse by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of all theMembers of that House, it shall become a law.
A bill passed by Congress becomes a law in either of three ways:1. When the President signs it2. When the President does not sign nor communicate his veto of the bill within thirty days after hisreceipt thereof 3. When the vetoed bill is repassed by Congress by two-thirds vote of all its members, voting separately.
Procedure for enactment of appropriations and revenue bills is same with ordinary bills, but it may onlycome from the lower house. Appropriations bill are subject to the restrictions or qualifications as providedin the Constitution [Art VI, Sec. 25] and [Art. VI Sec. 27 (2)]
The lawmaking process in Congress ends when the bill is approved by the body. Approval is indispensableto the validity of the bill.
The system of authentication
devised is the signing by the Speaker and the Senate President of theprinted copy of the approved bill, to signify to the President that the bill being presented to him has beenduly approved by the legislature and is ready for his approval or rejection.
The Constitution requires that each House shall keep a journal [Art. VI Sec. 16(4)]. The Journal isregarded as conclusive with respect to matters that are required by the Constitution to be recordedtherein. With respect to other matters, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, the Journals have alsobeen accorded conclusive effect. Considerations of public policy led to the adoption of the rule givingverity (truth) and unimpeachability to legislative records. “Imperative reasons of public policy require thatthe authenticity of laws should rest upon public memorials of the most permanent character. That therights acquired today upon the faith of what has been declared to be law shall not be destroyed tomorrow,or at some remote period of time, by facts resting only in the memory of individuals.