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Amie Society and Environment Notes

Amie Society and Environment Notes

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Published by Deepak Kumar
Amie Society and Environment Notes
Amie Society and Environment Notes

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Published by: Deepak Kumar on Apr 04, 2011
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06/27/2014

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Society and Environment
Page 1 Notes
Long type Answers:
Explain in brief some of the major aspects of development.Ans:
Development is a total transformation of society and a movement in consciously chosen direction. There is no straightand linear progress from traditional to modern society, and neither is this transition smooth.Development is a complex one and involves several aspects:(1) Political development.(2) Social development.(3) Economic development(4.) Intellectual development.
(1) Political development
.: The first requirement of political development is a high degree of role of specialization (anddifferentiation) of political institutions and the growth of communication media. Political parties, trade unions, religiousorganizations, pressure groups and other similar organizations represent functional differentiation. In the second place, thereis greater emphasis on rational, scientific and secular techniques for decision making. The developed system acquires animpersonal character in which the law becomes more important than the whims of men in power.
(2) Social development.
When a traditional society is developed, there is a marked shifting of population from rural areas tourban centers under the impact of industrialization, which is one of the main agents of development In addition to migrationto cities and towns, the growth of technology gradually reduces the percentage of the population engaged in agriculture.Social development brings about a marked change in the outlook and behavior of social groups which are characterized bythe functions they perform rather than by their caste, language and other such factors, With the growth of socialdevelopment, the individual finds himself in a wider world of freedom in which there are fewer restrictions on his ability totake decision affecting his life. He is free to choose his own career rather than have it determined on the basis of his caster 
(3) Economic Development
Economic development also known as "economic growth" covers many aspects of social life. In the first place, it involves thesystematic application of science and technology to the processes of production and distribution of goods and services.Secondly, it compels increasing use of inanimate sources of energy in contrast to the use of human or animal energy intraditional societies. This change in the pattern of energy consumption can only be sustained by a evolution in theconsumption patterns of the masses demanding diversification of production in response to varied consumer needs.Diversified consumer needs lead to a high degree of specialization in production techniques and labor skills. Rationality ineconomic decisions (in determining the location of industry, for example) results in increased mobility of labor andemergence of a vast variety of market processor.
(4.) Intellectual development. :
Development cannot be sustained for long in any society without a corresponding and self-sustaining intellectual development characterized by constantly increasing knowledge. This involves the existence of adequate number of fact-finding and data-processing agencies, statistical units, Research and development laboratories,universities and similar institutions. Intellectual development implies the existence of intellectual elites who play a key role insustaining the growth of technology. Intellectual development leads, in all political systems, to greater emphasis onsecularism and on secularization of the process of government and bureaucracy'. It also leads to an increasing emphasis onstrengthening the material basis of life. 
List the impediments to development. Explain these in brief.Ans:
There are several impediments to development of a traditional society. Some of the obstacles are:(1) Lack of skills.(2) Rigid administrative system.(3) Impatience for rapid development.(4) Passion for quantitative expansion.(5) Premature politicization.(6) Strain on law and order resources.(7) Rapid growth of population. 
(1) Lack of skills:
The developing countries are usually weak in the skills required for development. The real problem intraining personnel for development programs lies not in unparting information to them, but in helping them to develop therequired skills. It is necessary, to give field workers and administrators more freedom to experiment and to try newapproaches; but this is precisely where the Indian programs suffer.
(2)Rigid Administrative System:
In India arid in many other Commonwealth countries, the administrative system inheritedfrom the British rule leaves little room for freedom to experiment. The inherited bureaucracy with its outmoded procedures of work and personal attitudes, inadequate delegation at all levels, too formal supervision of field workers and poor moraleprovide a major impediment. f3J Impatience for Rapid Development It arises from the belief that a country must embark onall areas of development at one time. This has led, among other things, to symbolic expenditure on big projects to convincethe masses and the outside world of the country's determination to become a modern nation in the shortest possible periodof time. Many poor countries have spent huge money on nuclear research even though the basic amenities of life remainunprovided for a high percentage of their population.
 
(3) Impatience for rapid development.
It arises from the belief that a country must embark on all areas of development atone time. This has led, among other things, to symbolic expenditure on big projects to convince the masses and the outsideworld of the country's determination to become a modern nation in the shortest possible period of time. Many poor countrieshave spent huge money on nuclear research even though the basic amenities of life remain unprovided for a highpercentage of their population. 
(4) Passion for Quantitative Expansion
Another obstacle arises from the passion for a rapid quantitative expansionwithout attention to quality. Apart from community development, education has very rapidly expanded in India sinceindependence and new universities and colleges have mushroomed under local pressure. The result of this expansion hasbeen pumping into the society a vast army of unemployed graduates.
(5) Premature Politicization :
The political leadership in developing countries has a marked tendency to politicize the massprematurely. The large number of students and unemployed youths, often recruited by various political parties, contribute tothe restlessness of the political process.
(6) Strain on Low and Order Resources :
Politicization of the mass results in considerable strain on the law and order resources of the state. The leadership in India has done very little since independence for rehabilitating the police in thepopular mind as protectors of the law. Attitude formed in the popular mind towards police in the era of our freedom strugglehas not yet died but has produced a certain ambivalence towards the police. As a result, investment in improvement andstrengthening of the police department has appeared to our leadership as being in some way contrary to the spirit of democratic welfare.
(7) Rapid Growth of Population:
Rapidly growing population is one of the major impediments to the development of atraditional society. Rapid population growth usually results from the improvement in the general conditions of the mass,better health-care facility and decline in morality. A high rate of population growth offsets the economic growth of a country.This leads to frustration, social tension and mass violence
Page 2 Notes
4.3 Define and explain a under-developed economy. What are the basicsCharacteristics of under-developed countries?Ans:
According to the "United Nations Experts Committee," an under- Pr -7 developed country is one whose per capita realincome is low when compared with the per capita real income of the US, Canada, Australia and Western Europe. Accordingto Prof.
Ragnar Nurkse
, "the under-developed countries are those which, compared with the advanced countries, are under-equipped with capital in relation to their population and natural resources". Even this defination is not fully satisfactory.
TheIndian Planning Commission
has defined an under-developed country as one "which is characterized by the coexistence, ingreater or lesser degree, of unutilized or under-utilized manpower on the one hand and of unexploded natural resources onthe other". According to
Colin Clark 
, who was one of the pioneers in the studies of under-developed economies, "economicdevelopment consists in the progressive enlargement of tertiary occupations in the economy". According to this definition,under-developed economies are those in which the primary occupations predominate. In current literature, all countries withlow per capita income are generally classified as under-developed. In general, all countries with per capita income less than10% of that of the US (31,910 US dollars) may be regarded as under developed countries. India , with a per capita incomeof 2,230 US dollars, is one of the most under-developed countries in the world.Some of the basic common characteristics are mention below:
(1)
Low per capita income
(2)
Deficiency of capita
(3)
Excessive dependence on Agriculture
(4)
Rapid Growth of Population
(5)
Large –scale Unemployment 
(6)
Under-Utilization of Resources
(7)
Foreign Trade Orientation
(8)
Low Levelsof Skill.
 4.5 "International trade plays an important role in economic development''-Justify the statement.Ans:
International trade plays a very important role in economic development since it allows a country to escape from itsown limitations of natural and human resources and concentrates its efforts in the areas in which it has a genuineadvantage. If there were no international trades, a developing country would have to grow on all fronts simultaneously. Inthat case, its growth could be seriously impaired by the limitations of natural resources and acquired human skills in manyareas. A country bent on growing through an industrialization policy may benefit if it can concentrate at first on lightmanufacturing and exporting consumer goods in return for capital goods made by heavy industries in more developedcountries. In this way, a developing country can gain many of the benefits of more efficient production that it could not hopeto match for a long time to come.Among the other advantages of specialization that international trade makes possible are the opportunities to takeadvantage of the economy of scale by producing far more goods than would be required to meet the domestic demand in astate of self-sufficiency. A further advantage that may be significant for a developing country is often called the advantage of "learning by doing". On the other hand, economic growth with a heavy dependence on the foreign trade often brings in theserious problem of the balance of payments in a world of fixed exchange rates. In a developing country, capital goods areoften one of the main limitations to growth. In a closed economy, the problem of scarce capital appears as a resourceproblem since there are not enough resources to produce capital goods at a rate as fast as desired. In an open economy thesame problem appears as a foreign exchange problem since there is not enough foreign exchange to buy all the importedcapital goods that are desired for faster economic growth. In both cases, the problem is the same, i.e., it is very difficult toobtain a desired level of capital goods. One way is to make the capital goods at home; the other way is to make consumer 
 
goods at home and then sell them abroad in exchange for capital goods. A second problem in a developing country isrelated to the import of consumer goods, if the country's economy is an open one. As the country's productivity rises,disposable income and the standard of living also rise. In many developing countries, the goods produced at home aremainly in the necessity class with low margins of profit, whereas imported goods tend to have a higher profit margin. In sucha situation, the rise in income that accompanies economic growth brings with it a shift in the pattern of consumer demand,with a larger proportion of consumers opting for the purchase of imported goods. Unless something happens to offset thisshift in consumer demand, economic growth can be accompanied by an increasingly severe problem of the balance of payments. This problem can be offset in two ways. The first way is for the country to develop export commodities withrapidly expanding demand for them in foreign countries. In this case, the exports can expand rapidly to match the increasingimports. A second way is for its domestic growth to take place partly in the sec-called "import-substitute" industries. Growthof industries that compete with Imports can keep the rapidly expanding demand for luxury goods from being translated intoan equally rapidly expanding demand for their imports. 
Write a brief note on interrelationship between social, economic and scientific factors.Ans :
Economic development is hardly possible without social change, and science, engineering and technology are themost important factors for changing a traditional society into a modern and developed one. Engineering is the ( I appliedscience and technology is the applied engineering. This clearly shows that social, economic and scientific factors for development are highly interrelated. Technology, arising from scientific research followed by technological development, hasbeen a prime mover m creating the kind of world in which we live today. From the shaping of the first stone tools, thediscovery of the wheel, the lever and the plough and learning the use of fire, man has assiduously shaped science to servehis material needs. Science, therefore, is not a new phenomenon! What is different today is that the discover of natural lawsthrough scientific research has given a new dimension to technology. As a result, technology now has such a massiveimpart on our lives that it offers on the one hand an almost infinite promise to relieve poverty and provide healthy conditionsof life, but on the other hand it also threatens our pattern of life, the global ecology and even the Survival of the human race.
Page 3 Notes
Explain the role of science and technology in development.Ans:
In order to appreciate properly the rationale and relevance of adopting science and technology for development, it isnecessary to draw a distinction between the two terms "science" and "technology". As explained earlier, science andtechnology are closely related and highly interdependent. Policy for them, however, has to be distinct. Science is the resultof man's restless quest to comprehend the phenomena of nature. By its very nature, development of science requires along-term planning. No schedule of time can be fixed in advance for achieving a scientific breakthrough. Technology, on theother hand, is product or process specific and not universal. Unlike science, technologies are not widely publicized andgenerally, not open to outsiders. The inventor guards the secrets of his technological breakthrough by getting a patent on itand thus preventing others from using the process developed by him. The possession of the patent on a technologicaldevelopment gives monopoly rights to the patent holder to derive commercial benefits from it for a fixed period. Technologyis an essential input in all decisions relating to production in all sectors of the economy. As a result, technology is amenableto time-bound programs, policies, strategies and planning on a continuing basis. All plans contain some specific projectswith some technological contents in them. Projects launched for national development have to be supported by appropriatetechnological inputs that would improve productivity of both men and materials. In the process of modernization, a countryhas to assimilate its own indigenous technology as well as the relevant imported technology. India has been doing so ever since it launched its ambitious five-year Plans. The role which relevant technology can play in improving productivity can beclearly seen from the experience of Punjab . Subsistence agriculture in Punjab was transformed into a commercial one,particularly after the Green Revolution in the 1960s, through the application of technology. 
4.8 Write a note on the obstacles to Transfer of Technology
.
Ans :
If the experience of the industrialized countries has been that science and technology have been ma)or instrumentsfor their economic development, one would assume that the same should be true for developing countries too. Certainly,great advances have been made in developing countries by the direct transfer of technology from advanced countries. For example, communications now form a worldwide network; certain devastating diseases like malaria, smallpox andtuberculosis have been controlled; and agriculture in the third world countries has made rapid progress by the use of fertilizers and high-yielding varieties of seeds.The relative failure of the process of technology transfer is due to many causes, in addition to the lack of indigenousscientific and technological capacity. The profit motive of the donors of technology does not always harmonize with the basicneeds of the receivers. Other causes of the failure of technology transfer lie in the social and political factors in the recipientnations. Another difficulty is the scarcity of capital. Also, some technologies are energy-intensive. In most Third Worldcountries, unemployment and underemployment are widespread and, therefore, capital-intensive technologies are notsuitable to them. Another obstacle to successful transfer of technology is the insufficient local availability of the necessarytechnical and managerial skills.At present, the main political debate with regard to the use of science and technology for development is concentrated onthe transfer process itself, and on the improvement in the access of advanced technology to the developing countries. Thearguments used in the debate are highly politicized and centre around the effectiveness and motivation of the multinational

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