(3) Impatience for rapid development.
It arises from the belief that a country must embark on all areas of development atone time. This has led, among other things, to symbolic expenditure on big projects to convince the masses and the outsideworld of the country's determination to become a modern nation in the shortest possible period of time. Many poor countrieshave spent huge money on nuclear research even though the basic amenities of life remain unprovided for a highpercentage of their population.
(4) Passion for Quantitative Expansion
Another obstacle arises from the passion for a rapid quantitative expansionwithout attention to quality. Apart from community development, education has very rapidly expanded in India sinceindependence and new universities and colleges have mushroomed under local pressure. The result of this expansion hasbeen pumping into the society a vast army of unemployed graduates.
(5) Premature Politicization :
The political leadership in developing countries has a marked tendency to politicize the massprematurely. The large number of students and unemployed youths, often recruited by various political parties, contribute tothe restlessness of the political process.
(6) Strain on Low and Order Resources :
Politicization of the mass results in considerable strain on the law and order resources of the state. The leadership in India has done very little since independence for rehabilitating the police in thepopular mind as protectors of the law. Attitude formed in the popular mind towards police in the era of our freedom strugglehas not yet died but has produced a certain ambivalence towards the police. As a result, investment in improvement andstrengthening of the police department has appeared to our leadership as being in some way contrary to the spirit of democratic welfare.
(7) Rapid Growth of Population:
Rapidly growing population is one of the major impediments to the development of atraditional society. Rapid population growth usually results from the improvement in the general conditions of the mass,better health-care facility and decline in morality. A high rate of population growth offsets the economic growth of a country.This leads to frustration, social tension and mass violence
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4.3 Define and explain a under-developed economy. What are the basicsCharacteristics of under-developed countries?Ans:
According to the "United Nations Experts Committee," an under- Pr -7 developed country is one whose per capita realincome is low when compared with the per capita real income of the US, Canada, Australia and Western Europe. Accordingto Prof.
, "the under-developed countries are those which, compared with the advanced countries, are under-equipped with capital in relation to their population and natural resources". Even this defination is not fully satisfactory.
TheIndian Planning Commission
has defined an under-developed country as one "which is characterized by the coexistence, ingreater or lesser degree, of unutilized or under-utilized manpower on the one hand and of unexploded natural resources onthe other". According to
, who was one of the pioneers in the studies of under-developed economies, "economicdevelopment consists in the progressive enlargement of tertiary occupations in the economy". According to this definition,under-developed economies are those in which the primary occupations predominate. In current literature, all countries withlow per capita income are generally classified as under-developed. In general, all countries with per capita income less than10% of that of the US (31,910 US dollars) may be regarded as under developed countries. India , with a per capita incomeof 2,230 US dollars, is one of the most under-developed countries in the world.Some of the basic common characteristics are mention below:
Low per capita income
Deficiency of capita
Excessive dependence on Agriculture
Rapid Growth of Population
Large –scale Unemployment
Under-Utilization of Resources
Foreign Trade Orientation
Low Levelsof Skill.
4.5 "International trade plays an important role in economic development''-Justify the statement.Ans:
International trade plays a very important role in economic development since it allows a country to escape from itsown limitations of natural and human resources and concentrates its efforts in the areas in which it has a genuineadvantage. If there were no international trades, a developing country would have to grow on all fronts simultaneously. Inthat case, its growth could be seriously impaired by the limitations of natural resources and acquired human skills in manyareas. A country bent on growing through an industrialization policy may benefit if it can concentrate at first on lightmanufacturing and exporting consumer goods in return for capital goods made by heavy industries in more developedcountries. In this way, a developing country can gain many of the benefits of more efficient production that it could not hopeto match for a long time to come.Among the other advantages of specialization that international trade makes possible are the opportunities to takeadvantage of the economy of scale by producing far more goods than would be required to meet the domestic demand in astate of self-sufficiency. A further advantage that may be significant for a developing country is often called the advantage of "learning by doing". On the other hand, economic growth with a heavy dependence on the foreign trade often brings in theserious problem of the balance of payments in a world of fixed exchange rates. In a developing country, capital goods areoften one of the main limitations to growth. In a closed economy, the problem of scarce capital appears as a resourceproblem since there are not enough resources to produce capital goods at a rate as fast as desired. In an open economy thesame problem appears as a foreign exchange problem since there is not enough foreign exchange to buy all the importedcapital goods that are desired for faster economic growth. In both cases, the problem is the same, i.e., it is very difficult toobtain a desired level of capital goods. One way is to make the capital goods at home; the other way is to make consumer