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Radiation People Environment

Radiation People Environment

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Published by IAEAInformation

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: IAEAInformation on Apr 04, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/05/2012

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RADIATION
,
PEOPLE
 
AND
THE
ENVIRONMENT
 
For further information, please link to:
CONTENTS
Chapter 1Introduction 1
Benefits and risks 2Public anxiety 2
Chapter 2Atoms and radiation 3
Structure of matter 3Radioactivity and radiation 4Types of radiation 7
Chapter 3Radiation and matter 9
Ionization in tissue 10Dose quantities 11
Chapter 4Sources of ionizing radiation 13Chapter 5Radiation effects 15
Induction of cancers 16Risk assessments 16Risk factors for cancers 17 Hereditary disease 19Communal risk 21Irradiation in pregnancy 21
Chapter 6System of radiological protection 23
General principles 23Scope of application 25Justification of practices 25 Optimization of protection 26Limitation of doses 27The International Basic Safety Standards 28Regulatory infrastructure 28
Chapter 7Natural radiation 29
Cosmic radiation 29Gamma radiation 30Radon inhalation 31 Internal irradiation 32Total doses 32
Chapter 8Medical uses of radiation 33
Diagnostic radiology 34Nuclear medicine 35Radiotherapy 36Guidance levels for medical exposure 37Total doses 38
RADIATION, PEOPLE ANDTHE ENVIRONMENT
... a broad overview of ionizing radiation,its effects and uses,as well as the measures in placeto use it safely
Contents
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1
RADIATION, PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Introduction
Radiation
is a fact of life. We live in a world in which radiation is naturally present every-where. Light and heat from nuclear reactions in the Sun are essential to our existence.Radioactive materials occur naturally throughout the environment, and our bodiescontain radioactive materials such as carbon-14, potassium-40 and polonium-210 quitenaturally. All life on Earth has evolved in the presence of this radiation.Since the discovery of X rays and radioactivity more than 100 years ago, wehave found ways of producing radiation and radioactive materials artificially. Thefirst use of X rays was in medical diagnosis, within six months of their discoveryin 1895. So a benefit from the use of radiation was established very early on,but equally some of the potential dangers of radiation became apparent in thedoctors and surgeons who unwittingly overexposed themselves to X rays in theearly 1900s. Since then, many different applications of radiation and radioactivematerials have been developed.We can classify radiation according to the effects it produces on matter, into ionizingand non-ionizing radiation.
Ionizing radiation
includes cosmic rays, X rays and theradiation from radioactive materials.
Non-ionizing radiation
includes ultraviolet light,radiant heat, radio waves and microwaves.This book deals with ionizing radiation, a term, which for simplicity, is often shortenedto just radiation. It has been prepared by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)in co-operation with the National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom) as abroad overview of the subject of ionizing radiation, its effects and uses, as well as themeasures in place to use it safely.As the United Nations agency for nuclear science and its peaceful applications, theIAEA offers a broad spectrum of expertise and programmes to foster the safe useof radiation internationally. It has a statutory responsibility for the development ofsafety standards that are applicable to managing the wide variety of applicationsthat use radiation. It provides assistance to its Member States on the application ofthose standards through technical co-operation projects such as training courses andadvisory services. It also facilitates information exchange through conferences, andpublications, such as this one.
Chapter 9Occupational exposure to radiation 39
Artificial sources 40Natural sources 41Total doses 42
Chapter 10Environmental pollution 43
Nuclear weapon tests 43Chernobyl accident 45Radioactive discharges 47 Depleted uranium 49Managing contaminated areas 49Total doses 50
Chapter 11Nuclear power 51
Nuclear reactors 51
Chapter 12Waste management 53
Decommissioning 55Disposal criteria 56Other waste management practices 57
Chapter 13Emergencies 59
Nuclear emergencies 60Countermeasures 61Intervention standards 62Public information 63Other radiological emergencies 63
Chapter 14Risks from radiation sources 65
Accidents involving radiation sources 65Lost sources causing contamination incidents 67Radioactive Dispersal Devices 68
Chapter 15Transport of radioactive materials 69Appendix A
Glossary 71
Appendix B
Symbols and Units 79Scientific notation 79Prefixes 79Symbols 80Units 80
Selected References 81
IAEA Publications 81ICRP Publications 81UNSCEAR Publications 81 OECD/NEA 81European Commission 81
Chapter 1IntroductionContents
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