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2004RedListGuidelines

2004RedListGuidelines

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Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red ListCategories and Criteria
March 2004
Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommitteeof the IUCN SSC Red List Programme Committee
 
Contents1.
 
INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................3
 
2.
 
AN OUTLINE OF THE RED LIST CATEGORIES AND CRITERIA.......................................3
 
2.1
 
T
AXONOMIC LEVEL AND SCOPE OF THE CATEGORIZATION PROCESS
............................................3
 
2.2
 
 N
ATURE OF THE CATEGORIES
......................................................................................................5
 
2.3
 
 N
ATURE OF THE CRITERIA
...........................................................................................................8
 
2.4
 
C
ONSERVATION PRIORITIES AND ACTIONS
.................................................................................11
 
2.5
 
D
OCUMENTATION
.....................................................................................................................11
 
3.
 
DATA QUALITY............................................................................................................................11
 
3.1
 
D
ATA AVAILABILITY
,
INFERENCE AND PROJECTION
..................................................................11
 
3.2
 
U
 NCERTAINTY
...........................................................................................................................13
 
4.
 
GUIDELINES FOR THE DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED IN THE CRITERIA...............15
 
4.1
 
P
OPULATION AND
P
OPULATION
S
IZE
(C
RITERIA
A, C
AND
D)..................................................15
 
4.2
 
S
UBPOPULATIONS
(C
RITERIA
B
AND
C)....................................................................................15
 
4.3
 
M
ATURE INDIVIDUALS
(C
RITERIA
A, B, C
AND
D)...................................................................15
 
4.4
 
G
ENERATION
(C
RITERIA
A, C1
AND
E).....................................................................................17
 
4.5
 
EDUCTION
(C
RITERION
A)......................................................................................................18
 
4.6
 
C
ONTINUING DECLINE
(C
RITERIA
B
AND
C)..............................................................................19
 
4.7
 
E
XTREME FLUCTUATIONS
(C
RITERIA
B
AND
C2)......................................................................20
 
4.8
 
S
EVERELY FRAGMENTED
(C
RITERION
B)..................................................................................20
 
4.9
 
E
XTENT OF OCCURRENCE
(C
RITERIA
A
AND
B).........................................................................21
 
4.10
 
A
REA OF OCCUPANCY
(C
RITERIA
A, B
AND
D).........................................................................22
 
4.11
 
L
OCATION
(C
RITERIA
B
AND
D)................................................................................................27
 
4.12
 
Q
UANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
(C
RITERION
E).................................................................................28
 
5.
 
GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CRITERION A.......................................................................28
 
5.1
 
T
HE USE OF TIME CAPS IN CRITERION
A.....................................................................................29
 
5.2
 
H
OW TO APPLY CRITERION
A4..................................................................................................30
 
5.3
 
T
HE SKI
-
JUMP EFFECT
................................................................................................................30
 
5.4
 
S
EVERELY DEPLETED POPULATIONS
..........................................................................................31
 
5.5
 
F
ISHERIES
..................................................................................................................................31
 
5.6
 
T
REES
........................................................................................................................................31
 
5.7
 
ELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOSS OF HABITAT AND POPULATION REDUCTION
...............................32
 
5.8
 
T
AXA WITH
W
IDELY
D
ISTRIBUTED OR 
M
ULTIPLE
P
OPULATIONS
..............................................32
 
6.
 
GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CRITERION B.......................................................................42
 
7.
 
GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CRITERION C.......................................................................42
 
8.
 
GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CRITERION D.......................................................................42
 
8.1
 
T
AXA KNOWN ONLY FROM THE TYPE LOCALITY
........................................................................43
 
8.2
 
E
XAMPLE OF APPLYING CRITERION
D........................................................................................43
 
9.
 
GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CRITERION E.......................................................................43
 
9.1
 
W
HAT IS EXTINCTION
?..............................................................................................................44
 
9.2
 
W
HICH METHOD CAN BE USED
?.................................................................................................44
 
9.3
 
I
S THERE ENOUGH DATA
?..........................................................................................................45
 
9.4
 
M
ODEL COMPONENTS AND PARAMETERS
..................................................................................46
 
9.5
 
I
 NCORPORATING UNCERTAINTY
................................................................................................47
 
9.6
 
D
OCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS
............................................................................................47
 
10.
 
GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING THE CATEGORIES DD, NT, AND NE..........................48
 
10.1
 
W
HEN TO USE THE CATEGORY
 N
EAR 
T
HREATENED
...................................................................48
 
10.2
 
 N
OT
E
VALUATED AND
D
ATA
D
EFICIENT
...................................................................................48
 
10.3
 
W
HEN TO USE
D
ATA
D
EFICIENT
................................................................................................48
 
11.
 
REFERENCES............................................................................................................................49
 
 
Red List Guidelines 3
 
1.
Introduction
The IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria were first published in 1994 following sixyears of research and broad consultation (IUCN 1994). The 1994 IUCN Categories andCriteria were developed to improve objectivity and transparency in assessing theconservation status of species, and therefore to improve consistency and understandingamong users. The 1994 categories and criteria were applied to a large number of speciesin compiling the 1996 Red List of Threatened Animals. The assessment of many speciesfor the 1996 Red List drew attention to certain areas of difficulty, which led IUCN toinitiate a review of the 1994 categories and criteria, which was undertaken during 1998 to1999. This review was completed and the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria(version 3.1) are now published (IUCN 2001).This document provides guidelines to the application of version 3.1 of the categories andcriteria, and in so doing addresses many of the issues raised in the process of reviewingthe 1994 categories and criteria. This document explains how the criteria should beapplied to determine whether a taxon belongs in a category of threat, and gives examplesfrom different taxonomic groups to illustrate the application of the criteria. Theseguidelines also provide detailed explanations of the definitions of the many terms used inthe criteria. The guidelines should be used in conjunction with the official IUCN RedList Categories and Criteria booklet (IUCN 2001).We expect to review and update these guidelines periodically, and input from all users of the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria are welcome. We especially welcome IUCNSpecialist Groups and Red List Authorities to submit examples that are illustrative of these guidelines. We expect that the changes to these guidelines will be mostly additionsof detail and not changes in substance. In addition, we do not expect the IUCN Red ListCriteria to be revised in the near future, because a stable system is necessary to allowcomparisons over time.
2.
An outline of the Red List categories and criteria
2.1 Taxonomic level and scope of the categorization process
2.1.1 Taxonomic scale of categorization
The criteria may be applied to any taxonomic unit at or below the species level. In theseguidelines, the terms ‘
taxon
’ and ‘taxa’ are used to represent species or lower taxonomiclevels, including forms that are not yet fully described. There is sufficient range amongthe different criteria to enable appropriate listing of taxa from the complete taxonomicspectrum, with the exception of micro-organisms. In presenting the results of applyingcriteria, the taxonomic unit used (species, subspecies, etc.) should be specified. It should be noted that taxa below the rank of variety (e.g., forma, morph, cultivar), are NOTincluded on the IUCN Red List, with the exception of assessments of isolatedsubpopulations. Before assessments of taxa below the species level (subspecies, varietyor subpopulation) can be included on the IUCN Red List, an assessment of the fullspecies is also required.

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