Destination repudiation (Stallings, 2006).The above attacks are all requirements that must addressed to have an affective messageauthentication strategy. Also, to address these issues, you must consider both lower and highlevel authentication tactics.There are three main classes of techniques that can be used to encrypt messages on thislower level. These methods are by using hash functions, message encryption, and messageauthentication codes (Stallings, 2006). Using any of these techniques cover most of the aboveattack concerns. Using digital signature in conjunction with any of these lower levelauthentication techniques can help address the higher level authentication security concerns.Along with this, newer, more secure lower level practices are being developed to help addressthe exploits being discovered daily. One of these new cryptology practices is called abstractcryptology. Using this strategy, an outsider is able to obtain cryptology information and createsattacks using cryptology primitives, the attacks would not work as they would when not usingthis method (Mashatan, 2009).
Mashatan, A., & Stinson, D.. (2009). Interactive two-channel message authentication based onInteractive-Collision Resistant hash functions. International Journal of InformationSecurity, 8(1), 49-60. Retrieved May 23, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (DocumentID: 1631