Unknown, may be Catherine Parr Trail, Roughing It...
Rupert Brooke, unknown
Earle Birney, unknown
foundation in the consciousness of guilt.
The English poet Rupert Brooke, who was active during the period of the First World War, wason the same wave-length as the Traill sisters: The maple and the birch conceal no dryads and Pan has never been heard among these reed beds. Look as long as you like [He was able to spare a few weeks.] andyou shall not see a white arm in the foam. A godless place. And the dead do notreturn. That is why there is nothing lurking in the heart of the shadows, and nohuman mystery in the colours, and neither the same joy nor kind of peace indawn and sunset that older lands know. It is, indeed, a new world.
It must be remembered that Brooke represented a fading imperialist empire, but, it is harder tounderstand the motives of native born men and women who have promoted a similar image of Canada as a grey, unspirited wasteland. In 1948, Douglas Le Pan published a thin book of poems, which included a poem entitled, "A Country Without Mythology." Hopefully he wasdecrying our lack of interest in the tales which comprise our myths, legends and history.Perhaps the same may be said for Earle Birney, who suggested in 1962 that, "it's only by ourlack of ghosts we're haunted."
In the Maritime population it has been estimated that only about eight percent of the originalsettlers were English. More than half were Scots and the rest German, Irish, and Scot-Irishsettlers. These were soon joined by Yorkshire men, who settled the upper Bay of Fundy, by more Scots who were ousted during the Highland Clearances, and by the Irish who had to movebecause of famine at home. When my great-great grandfather Alexander Mackay came to theMagaguadavic River he probably spoke Gaelic and no English. My great-great-great grandfatherGuptill may have spoken some English when he moved to Grand Manan from Maine, but Isuspect he knew as much German. My extended family included the "English" Russells, who were originally Scandinavian, and the Gillmors, who probably preferred Irish Gaelic over thelanguage now in use. These people became an integrated population when English was takenup as the common tongue, but even as late as 1941, 10,000 Cape Bretoners still listed Gaelic astheir mother tongue. The Celtic peoples had a strong tradition of belief in the supernatural and they brought thisbelief with them to Canada. Some of this representative group knew of "witches" and "fairies"but most of the Gaels would have spoken of the "boabhe" and the "sidhe" and the Teutons would have spoken of the "hexen" and "albs", which approximate rather than equal oneanother. This means that the major sources of Maritime folklore are Indian, Gaelic, German,