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White Blood Cells and Their Disorders

White Blood Cells and Their Disorders

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Published by Abby Aitken
Abby's WBC disorder notes
Abby's WBC disorder notes

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Published by: Abby Aitken on Apr 05, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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07/14/2013

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WHITE BLOOD CELLS AND THEIR DISORDERSNormal blood cell development:Normally the bone marrow produces BLOOD STEM CELLS that over time develop and differentiateinto the cells shown above. A process called Haematopoiesis.(Granulocytes= cells with visible granules.)
Normal White cells:
-develop from blood stem cells in the bone marrow.- Rate of production under hormonal control: G-CSF = white cells, Tpo = platelets.- Circulate in blood.
 
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LYMPHOCYTES:
Bacterial
 
infections
: Response by neutrophils, leading to neutrophilia (increase in neutrophils)engulf and kill bacteria, failure results in infection.
Viral infection
: Response by lymphocytes, make immunoglobulins and memory cells, vaccinationresults in production of memory cells.
ABNORMAL WHITE BLOOD CELLS
When something goes wrong with WBC production, result is Congenital or acquiredimmunodeficiency, very serious condition, often fatal, treated with bone marrow transplant or genetherapy. Examples shown below.
Acute Leukaemia
‡
 
Proliferation of primitive precursor cells usually only found in bone marrow
‡
 
Proliferation without differentiation
‡
 
Replaces normal bone marrow cells, leads to: anaemia: palor and lethargyneutropenia: infectionthrombocytopenia: bleedingAcute leukaemia can lead onto
Acute myeloblastic leukaemia,
this is where Malignant proliferationof the precursor myeloblasts in the bone marrow occurs.Immunological memory.Vital to immunity!3 types:Generate antibodies.Aid B-cells inAntibodygeneration.Produceimmunoglobulins,when stimulatedby a foreignantigen.NaturalKillercellsDifferentiate intoplasma cellsNamed afterBone marrow.B-LymphocytesT-lymphocytesSome arehelper cells.Named afterThymus.Some arecytotoxic.Memory cells.

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