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Handbook of Biomass Downdraft Gasifier Engine Systems

Handbook of Biomass Downdraft Gasifier Engine Systems

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Published by A.R. Smith

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categoriesTypes, Research, Science
Published by: A.R. Smith on Apr 06, 2011
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SERIISP-271-3022
fOJ.AR
ENERGYRESEARCH
II\I~I·U"U'!_
DE88001135
TeCHNICALLIBRARY
f-;--::J?i:.R1YOF
-,,,';,COVERNMENT
HandbookofBiomassDowndraftGasifierEngineSystems
March1988UCCategory:245
OCT
7'
1988
ThishandbookhasbeenpreparedbytheSolarEnergyResearchInstituteundertheU.S.DepartmentofEnergySolarTechnicalInformationProgram.
It
isintendedasaguidetothedesign,testing,operation,andmanufactureofsmall-scale[lessthan
200
kW
(270
hpl]gasifiers.Agreatdealoftheinformationwillbeusefulforalllevelsofbiomassgasification.Thehandbookismeanttobeapracticalguidetogasifiersystems,andaminimumamountofspaceisdevotedtoquestionsofmoretheoreticalinterest.WeapologizeinadvanceformixingEnglishandScientifiqueInternationale(SI)units.Wheneverpossible,wehaveusedSIunits,withthecorrespondingEnglishunitsfol-lowinginparentheses.Unfortunately,manyofthefiguresuseEnglishunits,anditwouldhavebeentoodifficulttoconvertallofthesefigurestobothunits.Wehavesup-pliedaconversionchartintheAppendixtomaketheseconversionseasierforthereader.Mr.BillNostrand,oneofourveryhelpfulreviewers,diedinMay
1985.
Billwasnum-beroneintheranksofthosewhobecameinterestedingasificationbecauseofitspoten-tialforsupplyingclean,renewableenergy.Weallwillmisshim.Theimprovementofgasificationsystemswillbenoticeablyslowedbyhisdeath.WededicatethisbooktotheBillNostrandsofthisworldwhowillbringgasifiersystemstothelevelofsafety,cleanliness,andreliabilityrequiredtorealizetheirfullpotential.Thanks,Bill.
T.
B.ReedandA.DasGolden,Colorado
AProductofthe
0276
SolarTechnicalInformationProgramSolarEnergyResearchInstitute
1617ColeBoulevard,Golden,Colorado80401-3393
ADivisionofMidwestResearchInstitute
Operatedforthe
U.S.DepartmentofEnergy
 
Acknowledgments
Sinceitisimpossibleforoneortwoauthorstorealisticallycomprehendasubjectfromallviewpoints,wehavesolicitedinputfromleadingworkersinthefield.Earlyversionsweresenttoanumberofinvestigators,andeachwasinvitedtocommentonandsupplementoureffort.Wethereforeexpressourheartfeltthankstothefollowingreviewersforgreatlyenhancingthequalityofthefinalproduct:Dr.ThomasMilne,SolarEnergyResearchInstituteDr.ThomasMcGowan,GeorgiaInstituteofTechnologyMr.MatthewMendis,WorldBankMr.BillNostrand,NewEnglandGasificationAssociatesWetakefinalresponsibilityforthecontentsandomissions,andextendourapologiestothoseworkerswhoseworkwemayhaveunknowinglyomitted.Dr.BjornKjellstrom,TheBeijerInstitute,SwedenDr.HubertStassen,TwenteUniversity,TheNetherlandsProf.IbarraCruz,UniversityofManila,ThePhilippines
OrganizationandUse
Agasifierconvertssolidfueltogaseousfuel.Agasifiersystemincludesthegasificationreactoritself,alongwiththeauxiliaryequipmentnecessarytohandlethesolids,gases,andeffluentsgoingintoorcomingfromthegasifier.Thefigurebelowshowsthemajorcomponentsofagasifiersystemandthechaptersinwhichtheyarediscussed.
GasmeasurementandcleaningCh.7,8FuelCh.3GasifierCh.4,5,6Engine(orcombustor)Ch.11~Wholesystem~Ch.9,10
Notice
ThisreportwaspreparedasanaccountofworksponsoredbyanagencyoftheUnitedStatesgovernment.NeithertheUnitedStatesgovern-mentnoranyagencythereof.noranyoftheiremployees.makesanywarranties.expressorimplied.orassumesanylegalliabilityorrespon-sibilityfortheaccuracy.completeness.orusefulnessofanyinformation.apparatus.product.orprocessdisclosed.orrepresentsthatitsusewouldnotinfringeprivatelyownedrights.Referencehereintoanyspecificcommercialproduct.process.orservicebytradename.trademark.manufacturer.orotherwisedoesnotnecessarilyconstituteorimplyitsendorsement,recommendation,orfavoringbytheUnitedStatesgovern-mentoranyagencythereof.TheviewsandopinionsofauthorsexpressedhereindonotnecessarilystateorreflectthoseoftheUnitedStatesgovernmentoranyagencythereof.PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaAvailablefrom:SuperintendentofDocumentsU.S.GovernmentPrintingOfficeWashington.DC20402NationalTechnicalInformationServiceU.S.DepartmentofCommerce5285PortRoyalRoadSpringfield.VA22161Price:MicroficheA01PrintedCopyA07Codesareusedforpricingallpublications.Thecodeisdeterminedbythenumberofpagesinthepublication.Informationpertainingtothepricingcodescanbefoundinthecurrentissueofthefollowingpublicationswhicharegenerallyavailableinmostlibraries:
EnergyResearchAbstracts(ERA);GovernmentReportsAnnouncements
andIndex
(GRA
and
I);
ScientificandTechnicalAbstractReports(STAR);
andpublica-tionNTIS-PR-360availablefromNTISattheaboveaddress.
 
-------J----------
3.3OtherFuelParameters.123.3.1ParticleSizeandShape..,.123.3.2CharcoalandCharProperties.133.3.3BiomassAshContentandEffects.153.3.4BiomassMoistureContentandEffects.163.3.5BiomassHeatingValue.163.4BeneficiationofBiomassFuels...163.4.1DensifyingBiomassFuels.173.4.2DryingBiomassFuels.183.5BiomassFuelEmissions
.19
4.0PrinciplesofGasification
.214.1Introduction.......214.2BiomassThermalConversionProcesses.214.2.1Introduction.214.2.2BiomassPyrolysis.214.2.3CombustionofBiomass.244.2.4ChemistryofBiomassGasification.244.2.5ThermodynamicsofGasification..25
Contents
iii

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