INDUCTION MOTORSOne third of the world's electricity consumption is used for running induction motors drivingpumps, fans, compressors, elevators and machinery of various types. The AC induction motor isa common form of asynchronous motor whose operation depends on three electromagneticphenomena:
Motor Action - When an iron rod (or other magnetic material) is suspended in a magneticfield so that it is free to rotate, it will align itself with the field. If the magnetic field ismoving or rotating, the iron rod will move with the moving field so as to maintain alignment.
Rotating Field - A rotating magnetic field can be created from fixed stator poles bydriving each pole-pair from a different phase of the alternating current supply.
Transformer Action - The current in the rotor windings is induced from the current in thestator windings, avoiding the need for a direct connection from the power source to therotating windings.Induction motors have either wound rotors or squirrel cage rotors.
Wound Rotor. Wound rotors are constructed using the same principle as stator construction.
Squirrel Cage Rotor. The SCIM rotor has conducting bars embedded in grooves thatare etched in the surface of the rotor along the direction of the rotor axis. Theconducting bars are placed around an iron core. To allow current flow in the bars, thebars are shorted at either end of the rotor by large shorting rings. Squirrel cage rotor construction is shown figure below. The rigid construction of this type of rotor contributes significantly to the robustness of the SCIM.
One of the major advantages of the induction motor is that it does not need a commutator.Induction motors are therefore simple, robust, reliable, maintenance free and relatively low
Squirrel cage rotor construction