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AC and DC motor

AC and DC motor

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Published by Durrah Khaz
ac and dc motor
ac and dc motor

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Published by: Durrah Khaz on Apr 06, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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07/25/2011

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1.0
INTRODUCTION
An electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most electric motorsoperate through interacting magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors to generate force,although a few use electrostatic forces. The reverse process, producing electrical energy frommechanical energy, is done by generators such as an alternator or a dynamo. Many types of electric motors can be run as generators, and vice versa. For example a starter/generator for a gasturbine, or traction motors used on vehicles, often perform both tasks.Electric motors are found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and pumps,machine tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk drives. They may be powered bydirect current (e.g., a battery powered portable device or motor vehicle), or by alternating currentfrom a central electrical distribution grid. The smallest motors may be found in electricwristwatches. Medium-size motors of highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provideconvenient mechanical power for industrial uses. The very largest electric motors are used for propulsion of large ships, and for such purposes as pipeline compressors, with ratings in themillions of watts. Electric motors may be classified by the source of electric power, by their internal construction, by their application, or by the type of motion they give.The physical principle of production of mechanical force by the interactions of an electric currentand a magnetic field was known as early as 1821. Electric motors of increasing efficiency wereconstructed throughout the 19th century, but commercial exploitation of electric motors on alarge scale required efficient electrical generators and electrical distribution networks.Some devices, such as magnetic solenoids and loudspeakers, although they generate somemechanical power, are not generally referred to as electric motors, and are usually termedactuators and transducers, respectively.
2.0
OBJECTIVE
i. To identify AC and DC motor.ii. To differentiate the components in AC and DC motor.iii. To identify the advantages and disadvantages of both AC and DC motor.
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3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
There are lots of motor that use in electrical system but the most commonly motor that used inelectrical system are alternating current or AC and direct current or DC. Basically, the referenceof these two motor are refer to the how the electrical current transferred through and from themotor. Based on the name, it is known that these two motor have different function and uses. Asfor DC motors, it is come in two general types which are brushes and brushless while AC motorsalso come in two different types. They can be a synchronous motor or induction motor. Beloware the details information regarding AC and DC motors.
3.1 ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC) MOTORS
As mentioned above, AC motors come in two types which are synchronous motors and inductionmotors. The AC motors are used differently based on what type of AC motor it is. There are twotypes of AC motors, depending on the type of rotor used. The first is the synchronous motor,which rotates exactly at the supply frequency or a submultiple of the supply frequency. Themagnetic field on the rotor is either generated by current delivered through slip rings or by apermanent magnet. The second type is the induction motor, which runs slightly slower than thesupply frequency. The magnetic field on the rotor of this motor is created by an induced current.The amount of power given off by an AC motor is determined by the amount of power needed tooperate the system.An AC motor has two parts. A
stationary
 
stator
having coils supplied withAC current to produce a rotating magnetic field, and a
rotor
attached to the output shaft that isgiven a torque by the rotating field.
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An AC motor stator with preformed stator coils
 
3.1.1
INDUCTION MOTORSOne third of the world's electricity consumption is used for running induction motors drivingpumps, fans, compressors, elevators and machinery of various types. The AC induction motor isa common form of asynchronous motor whose operation depends on three electromagneticphenomena:
Motor Action - When an iron rod (or other magnetic material) is suspended in a magneticfield so that it is free to rotate, it will align itself with the field. If the magnetic field ismoving or rotating, the iron rod will move with the moving field so as to maintain alignment.
Rotating Field - A rotating magnetic field can be created from fixed stator poles bydriving each pole-pair from a different phase of the alternating current supply.
Transformer Action - The current in the rotor windings is induced from the current in thestator windings, avoiding the need for a direct connection from the power source to therotating windings.Induction motors have either wound rotors or squirrel cage rotors.
Wound Rotor. Wound rotors are constructed using the same principle as statoconstruction.
Squirrel Cage Rotor. The SCIM rotor has conducting bars embedded in grooves thatare etched in the surface of the rotor along the direction of the rotor axis. Theconducting bars are placed around an iron core. To allow current flow in the bars, thebars are shorted at either end of the rotor by large shorting rings. Squirrel cage rotor construction is shown figure below. The rigid construction of this type of rotor contributes significantly to the robustness of the SCIM.
Characteristics
One of the major advantages of the induction motor is that it does not need a commutator.Induction motors are therefore simple, robust, reliable, maintenance free and relatively low
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Squirrel cage rotor construction

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