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Table Of Contents

1.BACKGROUND
1.1 REFERENCES
2.CLASSIFICATION
2.1 Categories of stone formers
Table 3:Categories of stone formers
2.2 Specific risk factors for stone formation
2.3 REFERENCES
3.DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES
3.1 Diagnostic imaging
3.1.1Allergy to contrast medium
3.1.2Metformin
3.1.4 Untreated hyperthyroidism
3.1.5REFERENCES
3.2 Analysis of stone composition
3.2.1REFERENCES
3.3 Biochemical investigations
3.3.1Analytical work-up in the acute phase
3.3.2Analysis of urine in search for risk factors of stone formation
3.3.3Comments on the analytical work-up
3.3.4REFERENCES
4.STONE BURDEN
4.1 REFERENCES
5.TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH RENAL COLIC
5.1 Pain relief
5.1.1Treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
5.1.2Prevention of recurrent episodes of renal colic
5.1.3Effects of diclofenac on renal function
5.2 REFERENCES
6.INDICATIONS FOR ACTIVE STONE REMOVAL
Table 14: Indications for active stone removal
6.1 REFERENCES
7.ACTIVE REMOVAL OF STONES IN THE KIDNEY
7.1 Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for stone removal
7.1.2ESWL for removal of large renal stones
7.1.2.1Location of the stone mass
7.1.2.3Composition and hardness of the stone
7.2 Percutaneous removal of renal stones
7.3 Aspects on staghorn stone treatment and importance of stone burden
7.3.3 ESWL and PNL
7.3.4 Percutaneous surgery versus ESWL for removal of renal stones
7.3.5REFERENCES
7.4 Open surgery for removal of renal stones
7.4.1Indications for open surgery
7.4.2Operative procedures
7.4.3REFERENCES
7.5 Chemolytic possibilities
7.5.1Infection stones
7.5.2Brushite stones
7.5.3Cystine stones
7.5.4Uric acid stones
7.5.5Calcium oxalate and ammonium urate stones
7.5.6REFERENCES
7.6 Recommendations for removal of renal stones
8.ACTIVE REMOVAL OF STONES IN THE URETER
8.1 ESWL for removal of ureteral stones
8.1.1REFERENCES
8.2 Retrograde manipulation of stones
8.2.1Stenting
8.2.2REFERENCES
8.3 Ureteroscopy for removal of ureteral stones
8.3.1Standard endoscopic technique
8.3.2Anaesthesia
8.3.3Assessment of different devices
8.3.3.1Ureteroscopes
8.3.3.2Disintegration devices
8.3.3.3Baskets
8.3.3.4Dilatation and stenting
8.3.3.5Clinical results
8.3.3.6Complications
8.3.3.7Conclusion
8.3.4REFERENCES
8.4.1REFERENCES
8.5Recommendations for active removal of ureteral stones: all sizes
9.GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS AND PRECAUTIONS FOR STONE REMOVAL
9.1 Infections
9.2 Bleeding
9.3 Pregnancy
9.4 Pacemaker
9.5 Hard stones
9.6 Radiolucent stones
9.7 REFERENCES
10.COMPLETE OR PARTIAL STAGHORN STONES
11.MANAGING SPECIAL PROBLEMS
11.1REFERENCES
12.RESIDUAL FRAGMENTS
12.1REFERENCES
13.1REFERENCES
14.PREVENTIVE TREATMENT IN CALCIUM STONE DISEASE
14.1General recommendations
14.1.1REFERENCES
14.2Pharmacological agents in prevention of recurrent calcium stone formation
14.2.1 Thiazides and thiazide-like agents
14.2.2 Alkaline citrate
14.2.5 Allopurinol
A1. Approximate stone surface area with known diameters of the stone
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18 Urolithiasis

18 Urolithiasis

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Published by: Dhimas Handoko Wibisono on Apr 06, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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