in which many cells and cellular elements play a role, in particular, mast cells, eosinophils, T lymphocytes,macrophages, neutrophils, and epithelial cells. All of these features need not be present in any given asthmaticpatient. Although the absolute "minimum criteria" to establish a diagnosis of asthma is not known or widely agreedupon, the presence of airway hyper reactivity is a common finding in patients with current symptoms and activeasthma.
Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by recurrent attacks of breathlessness and wheezing,which vary in severity and frequency from person to person. Symptoms may occur several timesin a day or week in affected individuals, and for some people become worse during physicalactivity or at night. During an asthma attack, the lining of the bronchial tubes swell, causing theairways to narrow and reducing the flow of air into and out of the lungs. Recurrent asthmasymptoms frequently cause sleeplessness, daytime fatigue, reduced activity levels and school andwork absenteeism. Asthma has a relatively low fatality rate compared to other chronic diseases.
According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, 300 million people suffer from asthma and255 000 people died of asthma in 2005.
Asthma is currently a worldwide problem, with
prevalence in both children and adults. Totalprevalence is estimated to be 7.2% of the world's population (6% in adults, 10% in children).
An hospital based study on 20,000 children under the age of 18 years from 1979,1984,1989,1994 and1999 in the city of Bangalore showed a prevalence of 9%, 10.5%, 18.5%, 24.5% and 29.5% respectively. Theincreased prevalence correlated well with demographic changes of the city. Further to the hospital study, aschool survey in 12 schools on 6550 children in the age group of 6 to 15 years was undertaken for