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paper by A M Selvam

paper by A M Selvam

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A General Systems Theory for Chaos, Quantum Mechanics and Gravity for Dynamical Systems of all Space-Time Scales
A General Systems Theory for Chaos, Quantum Mechanics and Gravity for Dynamical Systems of all Space-Time Scales

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A General Systems Theory for Chaos, QuantumMechanics and Gravity for Dynamical Systems of all Space-Time Scales
A M SelvamDeputy Director (Retired)Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune 411 008, IndiaEmail:amselvam@eth.netWeb site:http://www.geocities.com/amselvam 
Abstract
Non-local connections, i. e. long-range space-time correlations intrinsic to the observedsubatomic dynamics of quantum systems is also exhibited by macro-scale dynamical systemsas selfsimilar fractal space-time fluctuations and is identified as self-organized criticality. Theauthor has developed a general systems theory for the observed self-organized criticalityapplicable to dynamical systems of all space-time scales based on the concept that spatialintegration of enclosed small-scale fluctuations results in the formation of large eddycirculation. The eddy energy spectrum therefore represents the statistical normal distributionaccording to the Central Limit Theorem. The additive amplitudes of eddies, when squared(variance or eddy kinetic energy), represent the statistical normal (probability) distribution, aresult observed in the subatomic dynamics of quantum systems. The model predicts Kepler’slaws of planetary motion for eddy circulation dynamics. Inverse square law of gravitationtherefore applies to the eddy continuum ranging from subatomic to macro-scale dynamicalsystems, e.g. weather systems. The model is similar to a superstring model for subatomicdynamics which unifies quantum mechanical and classical concepts and manifestation of matter is visualised as vibrational modes in string-like energy flow patterns. The cumulativesum of centripetal forces in a hierarchy of vortex circulations may result in the observedinverse square law form for gravitational attraction between inertial masses of the eddies.PACS Category: 80.
1. Introduction
Atmospheric flows, a representative example of turbulent fluid flows, exhibit long-rangespatiotemporal correlations manifested as the fractal geometry to the global cloud cover patternconcomitant with inverse power law form for spectra of temporal fluctuations. Such non-localconnections are ubiquitous to dynamical systems in nature and are identified as signatures of self-organized criticality [1]. A review of research work on the applications of selfsimilarity and self-organized criticality in atmospheric sciences is given in [2]. A cell dynamical system model developedfor atmospheric flows shows that the observed long-range spatiotemporal correlations are intrinsic toquantumlike mechanics governing fluid flows [3 - 5]. The model concepts are independent of the exactdetails such as the chemical, physical, physiological and other properties of the dynamical system andtherefore provide a general systems theory applicable to all real world and computed dynamicalsystems in nature [6 - 13].The model is based on the concept that spatial integration of enclosed small-scale fluctuationsresults in the formation of large eddy circulations. The model predicts the following: (i) the flowstructure consists of an overall logarithmic spiral trajectory with the quasiperiodic
Penrose
tilingpattern for the internal structure (ii) conventional power spectrum analysis will resolve such spiraltrajectory as a continuum of eddies with progressive increase in phase (iii) increments in phase angleare concomitant with increase in period length and also represents the variance, a characteristic of quantum systems identified as ‘
Berry’s phase
’ (iv) the universal algorithm for self-organized criticalityis expressed in terms of the universal
Feigenbaum
’s constants [14]
a
and
as
2a
2
=
π 
where, the
 
A M Selvam2
fractional volume intermittency of occurrence
π 
contributes to the total variance
2a
2
 
of fractalstructures (v) the
Feigenbaum
’s constants are expressed as functions of the
golden mean
(vi) thequantum mechanical constants ‘
fine structure constant 
’ and ‘
ratio of proton mass to electron mass
which are pure numbers and obtained by experimental observations only, are now derived in terms of the
Feigenbaum
’s constant
a
(vii) atmospheric flow structure follows
Kepler’s
third law of planetarymotion. Therefore
Newton
’s
inverse square law for gravitation
applies to eddy masses also. Thecentripetal accelerations representing inertial masses (of eddies) are equivalent to gravitational masses.Fractal structure to the spacetime continuum can be visualized as a nested continuum of vortex (eddy)circulations whose inertial masses obey Newton’s inverse square law of gravitation. The modelconcepts are equivalent to a superstring model for subatomic dynamics, which incorporatesgravitational forces. El Naschie [15] and Argyris and Ciubotariu [16] have discussed the fractalstructure to spacetime and also state that fractalisation of micro-space is the origin of gravity.
2. A general systems theory for fluid flows: A string theory for fractal spacetime
The fractal spacetime fluctuations of dynamical systems may be visualized to result from thesuperimposition of an ensemble of eddies, namely an eddy continuum. The relationship between largeand small eddy circulation parameters are obtained on the basis of Townsend’s [17] concept that largeeddies are envelopes enclosing turbulent eddy (small-scale) fluctuations (figure 1).
Figure 1. Physical concept of eddy growth process by the self-sustaining process of ordered energy feedback between the larger and smaller scales, the smaller scales forming the internal circulations of largerscales. The figure shows a uniform distribution of dominant turbulent scale eddies of length scale
2r 
.Larger-eddy circulations such as ABCD form as coherent structures sustained by the enclosed turbulenteddies.
The relationship between root mean square (r. m. s.) circulation speeds
and
w
*
respectively of large and turbulent eddies of respective radii
R
and
is then given as
2*2
wR2
π 
=
(1)The dynamical evolution of spacetime fractal structures is quantified in terms of ordered energyflow between fluctuations of all scales in (1), because the square of the eddy circulation speed
 
A General Systems Theory for Chaos, Quantum Mechanics and Gravity 3
represents the eddy energy (kinetic). A hierarchical continuum of eddies is generated by the integrationof successively larger enclosed turbulent eddy circulations. The eddy energy (kinetic) spectrum thenfollows statistical normal distribution according to the
Central Limit Theorem
[18]. Therefore, square of theeddy amplitude or the variance represents the probability. Such a result that the additive amplitudes of eddies, when squared, represent the probability densities is observed for the subatomic dynamics of quantum systems such as the electron or photon [19]. Townsend’s visualization of large eddy structure asquantified in (1) leads to the important result that the self-similar
fractal
fluctuations of atmospheric flowsare manifestations of quantumlike chaos. Incidentally, one of the strangest things about physics is thatwe seem to need two different kinds of mechanics, quantum mechanics for microscopic dynamics of quantum systems and classical mechanics for macro-scale phenomena [20 - 23]. The abovevisualization of the unified network of atmospheric flows as a quantum system is consistent withGrossing’s [21] concept of quantum systems
as order out of chaos
phenomena. Order and chaos havebeen reported in strong fields in quantum systems [24].The square of the eddy amplitude
2
represents the kinetic energy
given as (1)
ν 
=
(2)where
ν 
(proportional to
1/R
) is the frequency of the large eddy and
is a constant equal to
w2
2
π 
 for growth of large eddies sustained by constant energy input proportional to
w
2
from fixed primarysmall scale eddy fluctuations. Energy content of eddies is therefore similar to quantum systems whichcan possess only discrete quanta or packets of energy content
h
ν 
where
h
is a universal constant of nature (Planck's constant) and
ν 
is the frequency in cycles per second of the electromagnetic radiation.The relative phase angle between large and turbulent eddies is equal to
r/R
and is directly proportionalto
2
(1). The phase angle therefore represents variance and also there is progressive increase in phasewith increase in wavelength. The above relationship between phase angle, variance and frequency hasbeen identified as
Berry's Phase
[25] in the subatomic dynamics of quantum systems. Berry’s phasehas been identified in atmospheric flows [4].Writing (1) in terms of the periodicities
and
of large and small eddies respectively, where
R2
π 
=
 and
=
w2
π 
 we obtain
2323
2R
π 
=
(3)The above equation (3) is analogous to
Kepler 
’s third law of planetary motion, namely, the squareof the planet’s year (period) to the cube of the planet’s mean distance from the
Sun
is the same for allplanets [26, 27]. Newton developed the idea of an inverse square law for gravitation in order to explainKepler’s laws, in particular, the third law. Kepler’s laws were formulated on the basis of observationaldata and therefore are of empirical nature. A basic physical theory for the inverse square law of gravitation applicable to all objects, from macro-scale astronomical objects to microscopic scalequantum systems is still lacking. The model concepts are analogous to a string theory [28] where,superposition of different modes of vibration in stringlike energy flow patterns result in materialphenomena with intrinsic quantumlike mechanical laws which incorporate inverse square law forinertial forces, the equivalent of gravitational forces, on all scales of eddy fluctuations from macro- tomicroscopic scales. The cumulative sum of centripetal forces in a hierarchy of vortex circulations mayresult in the observed inverse square law form for gravitational attraction between inertial masses (of the eddies). Uzer
et 
.
al
[29] have discussed new developments within the last two decades which havespurred a remarkable revival of interest in the application of classical mechanical laws to quantumsystems. The atom was originally visualized as a miniature solar system based on the assumption thatthe laws of classical mechanics apply equally to electrons and planets. However within a short intervalof time the new quantum mechanics of 
Schrodinger 
and
Heisenberg
became established (from the late1920s) and the analogy between the structure of the atom and that of the solar system seemed invalidand classical mechanics became the domain of the astronomers. There is now a revival of interest in

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