A review of
inﬁnity theory and the mass spectrumof high energy particle physics
M.S. El Naschie
Solvay Institute, University of Brussels, Brussels, BelgiumDepartment of Astrophysics, Faculty of Science, University of Cairo, Cairo, EgyptDepartment of Mathematics, School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK
The essay outlines the basic conceptual framework of a new space–time theory with application to high energyparticle physics. Both achievements and limitations are discussed with direct reference to the mass spectrum problem.
2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. The main purpose of the present work
In what follows we would like to give a short account of the so-called
theory, the main application of which has been so far in determining coupling constants and the mass spectrum of the standard model of elementaryparticles. I am afraid I will have to make a long story (which took many years of work) quite short with all of what thisentails in reading it. The results of
inﬁnity are at present contained in dozens of published papers too numerous torefer to them all, but for the purpose of ﬁlling the gaps in the present summary, half a dozen papers which are men-tioned at the end may oﬀer good help in overcoming the inevitable shortcomings in a condensed presentation (see Ref.[1–7]).
2. An outline of the conceptual framework of the theory
2.1. General remarks
The main conceptual idea of my work (which is encoded in Figs. 1 and 5) is in fact a sweeping generalisation of whatEinstein did in his general theory of relativity, namely introducing a new geometry for space–time which diﬀers con-siderably from the space–time of our sensual experience. This space–time is taken for granted to be Euclidean. Bycontrast, general relativity persuaded us that the Euclidean 3+1 dimensional space–time is only an approximation andthat the true geometry of the universe in the large, is in reality a four dimensional curved manifold. In
inﬁnity we takea similar step and allege that space–time at quantum scales is far from being the smooth, ﬂat and passive space which weuse in classical physics [1–3]. On extremely small scales, at very high observational resolution equivalent to a very highenergy, space–time resembles a stormy ocean . The picture of a stormy ocean is very suggestive and may come trulyclose to what we think the high energy regime of the quantum world probably looks like (see Figs. 1–4). However such apicture is not accessible to mathematical formulation, let alone an exacting solution. The crucial step in
inﬁnityformulation was to identify the stormy ocean with vacuum ﬂuctuation and in turn to model this ﬂuctuation using themathematical tools of non-linear dynamics, complexity theory and chaos [1,8,9]. In particular the geometry of chaotic
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2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/S0960-0779(03)00278-9Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 19 (2004) 209–236www.elsevier.com/locate/chaos