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rankine cycle

rankine cycle

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Published by: Atul on Aug 28, 2008
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06/15/2013

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Thermodynamics
4-1
wjg D:\TEACH\THAI-TM2\text\CHAP4.wp8 January 29, 2003 12:15
Figure 4.1
A simple systems for doingwork 
dW 
'
f dx
'
P A dx
'
 P
œ
(1)Figure 4.2
P
œ
diagram
ab
'
m
œ
b
œ
a
 P
œ
(2)
Chapter 4 Thermodynamics
4.1Introduction
This chapter focusses on the turbine cycle:thermodynamics and heat engines. The objective is to provideenough understanding of the turbine cycle to enable an appreciation of the role that it plays in overall plant design and performance. To set the scene, some thermodynamic fundamentals are reviewed in thenext few sections. Then heat engine cycles are discussed. Sections 4.2 to 4.7 are based on [SEA75].
4.2Wor
The infinitesimal amount of work done by a system (shown in figure 4.1) is:In figure 4.2, the shaded area represents the work done inmoving from state a to state b, i.e.In the MKS system of units:Pressure, P[=] N/m
2
(N = newton)Volume,
œ
[=] m
3
ˆ
Work, W[=] N - m = J(J = joule).
 
Thermodynamics
4-2
wjg D:\TEACH\THAI-TM2\text\CHAP4.wp8 January 29, 2003 12:15
dE 
'
dQ
&
dW where E 
'
%
%
 p
'
internal 
%
kinetic
%
potential energies
.
(3)
m
21
dQ
'
m
21
dU 
%
m
21
 Pd 
œ
(4)
q
2
&
q
1
'
u
2
&
u
1
%
Pv
2
&
Pv
1
(5)
h
/
u
%
Pv
.
(6)
w
'
(
v
 g 
&
v
 f  
)
'
1.7×10
5
 J 
/
kg 
(7)
4.3First Law of Thermodynamics
"The total work is the same in all adiabatic processes between any two equilibrium states having the samekinetic and potential energies". We generalize this to include the internal energy. This is justconservation of energy:
4.4Enthalpy, h
Consider a substance undergoing a phase change (state 1
6
state 2) at constant temperature. Since somechange in volume generally occurs, the total change resulting from the energy input isOn a unit mass basis, q=Q/M, u = U/M and v =
œ
/M, where M = mass. Thus:(assuming that P = constant for this process).The combination u + Pv occurs frequently and is called the specific enthalpy, h:Example: Consider the change in phase from liquid water to water vapour at 100
E
C. The latent heat of vaporization is 22.6x10
5
J/kg. The vapour pressure at 100
E
C is 1 atm = 1.01x10
5
 N/m
2
and v
g
= 1.8 m
3
/kgand v
= 10
-3
/kg.Thus the work done (in pushing back the atmosphere to make room for the vapour) is:Thus u
g
-u
= 22.6x10
5
- 1.7x10
5
J/kg= 20.9 x10
5
J/kg.Thus 92% of the energy of transformation is used in increasing the internal energy and 8% is used in Pvwork.
4.5Energy Equation
 
Thermodynamics
4-3
wjg D:\TEACH\THAI-TM2\text\CHAP4.wp8 January 29, 2003 12:15
 E 
'
0
'
j
energy inflow
&
j
energy outflow
'
12
mV 
21
%
mu
1
%
Q
%
1
œ
1
%
mgZ 
1
&
12
mV 
22
&
mu
2
%
&
2
œ
2
&
mgZ 
2
(8)
(
u
2
%
Pv
2
%
12
22
%
gZ 
2
)
&
(
u
1
%
Pv
1
%
12
21
%
gZ 
1
)
'
q
&
wor 
(
h
2
%
12
22
%
gZ 
2
)
&
(
h
1
%
12
21
%
gZ 
1
)
'
q
&
w
.
(9)
w
'
(
h
1
&
h
2
)
%
12(
21
&
22
)
(10)
22
'
21
%
2(
h
1
&
h
2
)
(11)
h
1
%
12
21
%
gZ 
1
'
h
2
%
12
22
%
gZ 
2
'
constant or u
%
Pv
%
12
2
%
gZ 
'
constant 
.
(12)
 Pv
%
12
2
%
gZ 
'
constant i
.
e
.
 P 
%
12
ρ
2
%
ρ
 gZ 
'
constant 
(13)
The law of conservation of energy states:Total energy of an isolated system is constant.Consider the case, as shown in figure 4.3, where a mass m is added at 1 and leaves at 2. The system is atsteady state. Thus:On a per unit mass basis, where q = Q/m, w = W/m, we find:Special case: turbine:q
.
0, Z
1
 
.
Z
2
Special case: flow through a nozzle:q = 0 = wSpecial case: Bernoulli equation:q = 0 = wIf there is no friction, u = constant. In addition, if the fluid is incompressible:

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