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francis turbine

francis turbine



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Published by Atul

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Published by: Atul on Aug 28, 2008
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Francis Turbines 7.1
Francis Turbines
In Chapter 3 the hydro turbines are classified by speed numbers, and the Francis turbines are in therange 0.2 <
< 1.5. This wide range imply that the hydraulic design of the runner in these turbinesdiffer rather much from the lowest to the highest speed numbers.In general the Francis turbines have a guide vane cascade encompassing the whole circumference of the runner. Adjustable vanes in the cascade create the canals which are equal in shape and size, for regulation of the discharge and flow direction before entering the runner. The water flow fills up allcanals completely in the guide vane cascade and the runner respectively. Therefore the water isunder pressure when it enters the runner.The Francis turbines may bedivided in two groups, the onegroup with horizontal and the other with vertical shaft. In practise it isnormal that turbines withcomparatively small dimensionsare arranged with horizontal shaft,while larger turbines have verticalshaft. The vertical arrangement isnormally used also for smalldimensions if the tail race water level is above the turbine centre.
7.1 Horizontal Francisturbine
A design example of a horizontalFrancis turbine is shown in Fig.7.1, which is an axial sectionthrough the turbine. The water from the supply penstock flowsthrough the scroll casing (26), theguide vane cascade (28), the runner (4), the draft tube (34) and into the
Fig. 7.1 Horizontal Francis Turbine
Francis Turbines 7.2
tail race canal. To obtain an even, quite undisturbed water flow without thrust losses through theturbine, it is of great importance that any sharp edges or any sharp bends in the flow path shouldnever exist.The numbered details on Fig. 7.1 are:
4. Runner 7. The runner cone9. Servomotor rod 10. Servomotor 14. Turbine shaft 16. Bearing pad 20. Bearing cover 22. Shaft sealing box23. Turbine cover 24. Runner seal ring 25. Stay vane26. Scroll case28. Guide vane29. Guide vane stem30. Guide vane lever 32. Link 33. Regulating ring 34. Draft tube
7.2 Vertical Francis turbine
An illustration of a vertical Francis turbine is shown in Fig. 7.2. This figure represents a
1. The scroll casing 3. Runner 4. Shaft 5. Draft tube cone8. Stay vanes9. Guide vanes12. Upper cover 13. Sealing box14. Guide bearing 14a.Bracket for the bearing(14)15. Regulating ring 17. Lower cover 21.Replaceable wear and labyrinth rings22. Link 23. Lever 24. Lower bearing for guidevane25.Upper bearing for guide vane26. Bearing for the regulating ring 27. Floor 28. Rotating oil cylinder 29. Oil scoop fastened to(14a) and (14) with theopening against therotating oil in rotating oil cylinder (28) Fig. 7.2 Perspective of an axial section through a Francis turbine
Francis Turbines 7.3
 perspective of an axial section through the turbine. The position numbers point to details that arenamed in the list underneath.An illustration of a vertical Francis turbinearrangement is given in Fig. 7.3, where the unitsare built up in an underground cavern. A verticalsection through a unit is shown to the left and ahorizontal section across all units in the cavern isshown to the right at the bottom of the figure.The water flow enters the turbine through the pipe(32), the gate valve (33), scroll casing (1) andfurther through the guide apparatus and runner,draft tube cone (5), bend (5a) out in the tail racetunnel. The other position numbers are listed below.
30. Relief valve and energy dissipationchamber 31. Outlet from energy dissipation chamber 34. Valve in the bypass pipe for pressurising the scroll casing before opening the gate valve35. Governor housing with servomotor and accumulator 36. Pilot control of the governor 37. Ejector pipes38. Penstock for auxiliary turbine39. Auxiliary turbine40. Tail race pipe from the auxiliary turbine41. Vertical drain pumps42. Motors for water cooling pumps43. Staircase and conveying pit 44. Generator (above highest level of the tail water)45. Emptying the penstock 46. Emptying pipe from the draft tube Fig 7.3 Power plant with vertical Francis turbines
Vertical sectionHorizontal section

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