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Cuttings Descriptions Clastic

Cuttings Descriptions Clastic

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Ardian Aby SantosaCutting description Guide-Clastic
1
 
Cuttings Descriptions Clastic
Description order – memorise this!!1. Rock type (% and modifier, if required)2. Colour or colour range3. Hardness4. Fracture and texture (Break)5. Grain size: Range and Dominant size6. Sorting7. Angularity or Roundness8. Sphericity9. Matrix10. Cementation: Degree, Percentage of each cement and composition11. Accessories and Fossils: Type and Percentage of rock12. Effective Visual porosity, type(s) and amount13. Hydrocarbon indications shows description (separate module)
Rock NameArenaceous Siliclastics
Arenaceous rocks may be clastic but generally they are resistate (i.e. without clay),comprising predominantly quartz, minor feldspar and other detrital accessories (rockfragments).
Little useful information can be obtained about the quartz mineralogy at the wellsitealthough the physical condition of the grains may tell you some information. Like?
The type, condition and abundance of minerals other than quartz will be of help ininterpreting the environment and rate of sedimentation and may help in isolating thesource and history of the sediment.
It will also help the identification of the sediment for later correlation. Identification of rockmineralogy may also be important in selecting matrix properties for the interpretation ofporosity and other wireline logs.
A guide to proper naming of the rocks is shown in the next slide.
 
Ardian Aby SantosaCutting description Guide-Clastic
2
 
Lithology Definition – after Folk, 1974
Examples80% Q, 16% F, 4% R =Sub-Arkose Sandstone74% Q, 7% F, 21% R =Litharenite Sandstone50% Q, 40% F 10% R =Arkose Sandstone50% Q, 24% F, 26% R =Feldspathic Litharenite
By using this naming method, it is immediately obvious to the reader what type ofarenaceous rock is being described.
The FOLK method is primarily useful when describing sidewall cores (SWC and RCOR – rotary side wall cores) and conventional core chips as you can see the original rocktextures which has not been totally destroyed by the drilling action of PDC bits.
However, you CAN use this as part of a drilled cutting description i.e. Litharenite or‘Quartzite’ Sandstones, these are quite easy to identify.
If used, be careful to be correct (the WSG may well be asked to explain his findings in aconference call with town).
As stated in the first slides - It is best practice when unsure of naming a rock to follow therock name with a ? if not sure i.e. Lithic Arkose?: pinkish grey, etc.
Argillaceous Rocks – Reference text
Argillaceous rocks and much of the matrix and secondary mineralisation in rudaceous(coarse grained) and arenaceous rocks a production of hydrolysis, e.g. clay minerals,hydrous micas, hydroxides and some oxides. It is important to realise the subtle thoughsignificant difference between hydrolysate sediments and the other so called “chemical”sediments.
Hydrolysate minerals result from the chemical weathering of the parent minerals at thepoint of weathering and throughout the period of transport and sedimentation.
True chemical sediments are produced by crystallisation or precipitation at the place ofsedimentation and may show no direct relationship to the parent, or parents, or the meansof weathering and transport.
The five most significant minerals present in argillaceous rocks are the sheet silicates: illite,montmorillonite, vermiculite, kaolinite (all clay minerals) and chlorite. (Note: each of thesemineral names encompasses a range of varying composition, i.e. a group of mineralsrelated by a common structure.
 
Ardian Aby SantosaCutting description Guide-Clastic
3
 
For your reference - The term “smectite” is commonly used to describe the montmorillonitegroup, sometimes to include vermiculite.
Clay minerals are usually the products of weathering and hydrothermal alteration of parentrocks, the latter probably being of lesser and possibly not quantitative importance.
Acidic rocks, deficient in calcium, magnesium and sodium tend to yield kaolinite, whereasAlkaline rocks generally yield montmorillonite.
Illite may result from either rock type when potassium and aluminium concentrations arehigh.
Chlorite is often detrital in sediments but may form from the degradation offerromagnesian minerals.
Vermiculite may result from the degradation of micas and is also present in a mixed-layered form with detrital or secondary chlorite.
In addition to the sheet silicates, fractions of accessories include unaltered parent mineralsand resistant material, e.g. Quartz.
Reworked, previously compacted and re-weathered clay minerals may also be present.
The presence or absence of these in quantity gives clues to energy and activity of theenvironments of weathering, transport and sedimentation.
Since the physic-chemical weathering process is continuous, conditions within theenvironments of weathering, transport and sedimentation have as large, if not larger effecton the mineral product as the parent.
Lithology Definition - General WSG Field
Examples20% clay, 80% sand =Argillaceous Sandstone49% clay, 51% sand =Argillaceous Sandstone19% clay 81% sand =Sandstone20% silt, 30% clay, 50% sand =Argillaceous Silty Sandstone10% silt, 30% clay, 60% sand =Argillaceous Sandstone
 
If a rock has 20 – 50% of a minorconstituent then the name of the lithology
MUST
have a modifier.
Sand / Silt / Clay
SiltstoneClaystone20-8020-8020-8080-2080-2080-2050-5050-5050-50
   S   a   n   d   y    S    i    l    t   s    t   o   n   e   S    i    l    t   yS   a   n   d   s    t   o   n   e
ArgillaceousSiltstoneSiltyClaystone
S    a   n   d     y    C    l    a    y   s   t    o   n   e   A    r     g   i    l    l    a   c   e   o   u   s    S    a   n   d    s   t    o   n   e   
Sandstone
 
Sand / Silt / Clay
SiltstoneClaystone20-8020-8020-8080-2080-2080-2050-5050-5050-50
   S   a   n   d   y    S    i    l    t   s    t   o   n   e   S    i    l    t   yS   a   n   d   s    t   o   n   e
ArgillaceousSiltstoneSiltyClaystone
S    a   n   d     y    C    l    a    y   s   t    o   n   e   A    r     g   i    l    l    a   c   e   o   u   s    S    a   n   d    s   t    o   n   e   
Sandstone

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