Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword or section
Like this
54Activity

Table Of Contents

0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Radiowave Propagation

Radiowave Propagation

Ratings:

5.0

(2)
|Views: 7,585 |Likes:
Published by ala_a_silawi

More info:

Published by: ala_a_silawi on Apr 07, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/28/2014

pdf

text

original

 
 
I
RADIOWAVE PROPAGATION
This chapter is a presentation of the basic principles and algorithms related to radiowave propagation used in radio-relay transmission. Both loss and attenuation algorithms as well asfade prediction models for different fading mechanisms are presented and discussed. Thechapter also includes a presentation of the basic concepts of main propagation mechanisms,Fresnel zone, equivalent and true Earth radii and the decibel scale. Diversity, hardware failureand passive repeaters are also presented.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1
 
The decibel 1
 
1.1
 
A relative comparison 1
 
1.2
 
Some motivations for using decibels 1
 
1.3
 
Absolute comparisons 1
 
1.4
 
The comparison of field quantities 2
 
1.5
 
Power and field quantity ratios 3
 
2
 
The main propagation mechanisms 3
 
2.1
 
Propagation along the earth’s surface 4
 
3
 
The Fresnel zone and clearance 4
 
3.1
 
Definition 4
 
3.2
 
The Fresnel ellipsoid 4
 
3.3
 
Clearance 5
 
4
 
Equivalent and true earth radii 6
 
4.1
 
Earth-radius factor 6
 
4.2
 
Comparing the equivalent and true Earth surface 7
 
5
 
Prediction models 7
 
6
 
The prediction cycle 8
 
7
 
The loss/attenuation block 8
 
7.1
 
Free-space loss 8
 
7.1.1
 
Definition 8
 
7.1.2
 
Free-space loss between two isotropic antennas 9
 
7.2
 
Atmospheric gases 10
 
7.2.1
 
Definition 10
 
7.2.2
 
The troposphere 11
 
7.2.3
 
Chemical composition 11
 
7.2.4
 
Absorption peaks 11
 
7.2.5
 
Calculating total gas attenuation 11
 
7.2.5.1
 
Oxygen (dry air) 12
 
7.2.5.2
 
Water vapor 13
 
7.2.5.3
 
Total gas attenuation 15
 
7.3
 
Reflection 16
 
7.3.1
 
Ground reflection interference 16
 
7.3.2
 
The problems of handling reflection 17
 
7.3.3
 
Reflection coefficient 18
 
7.3.4
 
The Fresnel reflection coefficient 18
 
7.3.5
 
Divergence factor 18
 
7.3.6
 
Correction factor 19
 
7.3.7
 
Rough estimation of the total reflection coefficient 19
 
7.3.8
 
Calculation of the position of the reflection point 20
 
7.3.9
 
Optimum height difference 22
 
 
 
II
7.4
 
Precipitation 23
 
7.4.1
 
Types of precipitation 23
 
7.4.2
 
Precipitation: now 24
 
7.4.3
 
Precipitation: hail 24
 
7.4.4
 
Precipitation: fog and haze 25
 
7.4.5
 
Precipitation: rain 25
 
7.4.6
 
Cumulative distribution of rain 25
 
7.4.7
 
Obtaining Rain Intensity (the former ITU-R model) 25
 
7.4.8
 
Rain zones - diagram 26
 
7.4.9
 
Obtaining rain intensity (current ITU-R model) 26
 
7.4.10
 
The calculation of the specific rain attenuation 29
 
7.4.11
 
Calculating total rain attenuation 32
 
7.4.12
 
Calculating total rain attenuation for 0.01% 33
 
7.5
 
Obstruction - diffraction 33
 
7.5.1
 
Definition 33
 
7.5.2
 
Knife-edge obstructions 34
 
7.5.3
 
Knife-edge loss curve 35
 
7.5.4
 
Typical knife-edge losses 36
 
7.5.5
 
Single-peak method 36
 
7.5.6
 
Triple-peak method 37
 
7.5.7
 
Smoothly spherical earth 40
 
7.5.8
 
Typical losses resulting from smoothly spherical earth 41
 
7.5.9
 
Clearance and path geometry 41
 
7.5.9.1
 
The Earth bulge 41
 
7.5.9.2
 
Path geometry 42
 
7.5.9.3
 
The height of the line-of-sight 43
 
7.5.9.4
 
Clearance of the LOS 43
 
7.5.9.5
 
Antenna height 43
 
7.5.9.6
 
Obstacle penetration 44
 
7.5.10
 
Vegetation 44
 
7.6
 
The Link Budget 44
 
7.6.1
 
Path loss 45
 
7.6.2
 
Fade margin 45
 
7.6.3
 
Power diagram 46
 
7.6.4
 
Effective fade margin 46
 
8
 
The fading block 47
 
8.1
 
Definition 47
 
8.2
 
General cause 47
 
8.3
 
General classification 47
 
8.4
 
Classification based on source 48
 
8.5
 
The concept of outage 48
 
8.6
 
Rain fading (current ITU-R model) 48
 
8.6.1
 
Calculation of the fade margin based on a yearly basis 48
 
8.6.2
 
Outage due to rain fading - annual basis 49
 
8.6.3
 
Transformation between yearly and worst month basis 50
 
8.6.3.1
 
From yearly basis to worst month 50
 
8.6.3.2
 
From worst month to yearly 51
 
8.6.4
 
Presentation of the rain fading models in diagram form 51
 
8.7
 
Multipath fading 52
 
8.7.1
 
Flat and frequency selective fading 52
 
8.7.2
 
The effects of multipath propagation 53
 
8.7.3
 
Measures taken against multipath fading 54
 
8.8
 
Flat fading (former ITU-R model): small percentages of time 54
 
8.8.1
 
Introduction 54
 
8.8.2
 
Fade occurrence factor 55
 
8.8.3
 
Flat fading and quality (error performance) 55
 
8.8.4
 
Estimation of the geoclimatic factor 55
 
8.8.5
 
Inland Links 55
 
8.8.5.1
 
Antenna altitude coefficient 56
 
8.8.5.2
 
Latitude coefficient 57
 
 
 
III
8.8.5.3
 
Longitude coefficient 57
 
8.8.5.4
 
Climatic factor 
 p
 L
57
 
8.8.6
 
Coastal Links 58
 
8.8.6.1
 
Coastal links over/near large bodies of water 58
 
8.8.6.2
 
Coastal links over/near medium-sized bodies of water 59
 
8.8.6.3
 
Links at other regions 59
 
8.8.7
 
Link and terrain parameters overview 60
 
8.8.7.1
 
Estimation of the path inclination 60
 
8.8.8
 
Outage due to flat fading 61
 
8.8.9
 
Range of values for the climatic factor 
 p
 L
61
 
8.9
 
Flat fading (current ITU-R model): small percentages of time 62
 
8.9.1
 
Method for detailed link design 62
 
8.9.1.1
 
Geoclimatic factor 62
 
8.9.1.2
 
Parameters 62
 
8.9.1.3
 
Outage due to flat fading 64
 
8.9.2
 
Method for quick link design 64
 
8.9.2.1
 
Geoclimatic factor 64
 
8.9.2.2
 
Outage due to flat fading 65
 
8.9.3
 
Method for small percentage of time - conclusion 65
 
8.9.4
 
Method for all percentages of time 66
 
8.9.5
 
Range of validity for the flat fading method 68
 
8.10
 
Reduction of cross-polar discrimination 69
 
8.10.1
 
XPD outage due to multipath propagation 69
 
8.10.2
 
XPD outage due to precipitation 71
 
8.11
 
Outage due to frequency selective fading 72
 
8.11.1
 
General aspects 72
 
8.11.2
 
The prediction model 73
 
8.12
 
Refraction fading 75
 
9
 
Diversity 76
 
9.1
 
Basic concepts 76
 
9.2
 
The definition of the improvement factor 77
 
9.3
 
Improvement factor for space diversity 78
 
9.4
 
Improvement factor for frequency diversity 78
 
9.5
 
The calculation of outage when employing diversity 79
 
9.6
 
Prediction of outage using diversity 79
 
9.6.1
 
Space diversity 79
 
9.6.2
 
Frequency diversity 81
 
9.6.3
 
Space and frequency diversity with two receivers 81
 
9.6.4
 
Space and frequency diversity with four receivers 81
 
10
 
Prediction of total outage 82
 
11
 
Hardware failure 83
 
11.1
 
The calculation of the radio-link system’s
MTBF 
83
 
11.2
 
 Non-redundant systems 84
 
11.3
 
Redundant systems 85
 
11.4
 
Hardware failure per path 86
 
12
 
Passive repeaters 87
 
12.1
 
The basic concepts 87
 
12.2
 
Path calculation when using passive repeaters 88
 

Activity (54)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
marchelo_chelo liked this
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
Nay Lynn liked this
achmad_chanafi liked this
Benjamin Takeda liked this
Benjamin Takeda liked this
Benjamin Takeda liked this
josep_romero liked this
sotolongo1 liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->