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Redo Log Files_Oracle10g

Redo Log Files_Oracle10g

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Redo Log Files:-
Redo log files record all changes made to data and provide arecovery mechanism from a system or media failure.• Redo log files are organized into groups.• An Oracle database requires at least two groups.• Each redo log within a group is called a member
How Redo Logs Work 
Redo logs are used in a cyclic fashion.• When a redo log file is full, LGWR will move to the next loggroup.– This is called a log switch– Checkpoint operation also occursInformation is written to the control fileThe Oracle server sequentially records all changes made tothe database in the redo logbuffer. The redo entries are written from the redo log bufferto one of the online redo loggroups called the current online redo log group by the LGWRprocess. LGWR writes under the following situations:• When a transaction commits• When the redo log buffer becomes one-third full• When there is more than a megabyte of changed recordsin the redo log buffer• Before the DBWn writes modified blocks in the databasebuffer cache to the data filesRedo logs are used in a cyclic fashion. Each redo log filegroup is identified by a logsequence number that is overwritten each time the log isreused.
Log Switches
LGWR writes to the online redo log files sequentially. Whenthe current online redo loggroup is filled, LGWR begins writing to the next group. This iscalled a log switch.
When the last available online redo log file is filled, LGWRreturns to the first online redo log group and starts writingagain
Forcing Log Switches and Checkpoints
Log switches can be forced using theSql>ALTER SYSTEM SWITCH LOGFILE command.• Checkpoints can be forced using:– Setting FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET parameterSql> ALTER SYSTEM CHECKPOINT command
Adding Redo Log Groups
In some cases you might need to create additional log filegroups. For example, addinggroups can solve availability problems. To create a newgroup of online redo log files, use the following SQLcommand:To increase or decrease the size of online redo log groups,add new online redo log groups (with the new size) and thendrop the old ones.
• An instance requires at least two groups of online redo logfiles.• An active or current group cannot be dropped.• When an online redo log group is dropped, the operatingsystem files are not deleted
Obtaining Group and MemberInformation
Information about group and members can be obtained by queryingthe data dictionary.• V$LOG
Archived Redo Log Files
Filled online redo log files can be archived.• Two advantagesexist to archiving redo logs:– Recovery: A database backup, together with online andarchived redo log files can guarantee recovery of allcommitted transactions.– Backup: Can be performed while the database isopen.• By default a database is created in NOARCHIVELOG mode
Archiving redo log files is accomplished by ARCn (Archiver)or manuallythrough SQL statements.• An entry in the control file recording the archive log name,log sequencenumber, and high and low SCN number is made whenever aredo log issuccessfully archived.• A filled redo log file cannot be reused until a checkpointhas taken place and theredo log file has been backed up the ARCn process.• Archived redo log files can be multiplexed.

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