in the evidence pyramid (gure 1), were reviewed
and should be reviewed when determining safetyof animal supplements such as lutein, evening primrose oil, and garlic.
FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
n assessing animal dietary supplementsafety, elements such as the relevance of thestudy to safety, dosage, contaminants in thesupplements, and size of the study, all need tobe considered when designing and assessinganimal dietary supplements.
Although theuse of animal dietary supplements is potentiallygreater than the use of drugs or food additives,minimal safety data were available. Ideally, thecommittee would have liked to have adequatedata to determine a no observed adverse effectlevel (NOAEL) for or a safe upper limit (SUL) for each of the three supplements. With the limiteddata currently available, the committee could onlyreport historical safe intakes (HIS) and estimate presumed safe intake (PSI) for garlic (except for cats), evening primrose oil, and lutein.
The use of other species (i.e. non-targetspecies) is important in assessing safety of supplements but is limited.
Because of limitedamounts of data about supplements in the animalsof intended use (i.e. target species), research usingother species can provide important safety signals.Although non-target species provide importantevidence about safety they do not guaranteesafety in the target animals. An example is garlic,although considered safe in humans when taken asa supplement, there is a concern that excess garlicsupplement can cause hemolytic anemia in horses,
dogs, and cats. The committee has identied
several factors that should be considered whenselecting appropriate substitute animals. Factorsto be considered include the metabolic and naturaldietary pattern similarities between surrogate andtarget animals and whether the supplement isnaturally occurring in both animals’ diet.
Lutein is abundant in green and yellow fruits
and vegetables. The purported benets of
lutein supplements in humans include:Treatment or prevention of age-related macular degenerationAnti-oxidant and anti-cancer effectProtection against UV radiationAnti-aging effect••••
*When eaten as forage or naturalsources; no data exist for supplements
EVENING PRIMROSE OIL
Evening primrose oil (EPO) is an oil found inthe evening primrose plant. EPO is made up of fatty acids. Two of the fatty acids found in EPOare recognized for their contributions to the maintenance of normal health and metabolism.
*Assumes that total fat will not exceed23 percent of diet
*Which is the upper limit used in trials
*It is likely that cats could toleratehigher levels
Garlic has been used in the diet of humans for centuries. Ancient medical text from Egypt,Greece, Rome, China, and India includeprescribed medical applications of garlic. Today garlic is
thought to have numerous health benets including reducing
the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, stimulatingimmune function, and restoring physical strength
*There is a long history of safe use.
*The committee was unable to esti-mate a PSI for garlic.
DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS FOR HORSES,DOGS, AND CATS
Presumed safe intake (PSI) and historical safe intake (HSI) aregiven in milligrams per kilogram of body weight (mg/kg BW)