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Published by chennai11

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Published by: chennai11 on Apr 09, 2011
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Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM), is a set of EuropeanTelecommunication Standards Institute specifying the infrastructure for adigital cellular service. This standard is used in approx. 85 countries in theworld including such locations as Europe, Japan and Australia.
1.1 History of GSM:-
The Europeans realized GSM early on, and in 1982 the Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs (CEPT) formed a study group called theGroup Special Mobile to study and develop a pan-European public landmobile system.In 1989, GSM responsibility was transferred to the EuropeanTelecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI), and phase I of the GSMspecifications were published in 1990. Commercial service was started inmid-1991, and by 1993 there were 36 GSM networks in 22 countries.Although standardized in Europe, GSM is not only a European standard.Over 200 GSM networks (including DCS1800 and PCS1900) areoperational in 110 countries around the world. In the beginning of 1994,there were 1.3 million subscribers worldwide, which had grown to more than55 million by October 1997. With North America making a delayed entryinto the GSM field with a derivative of GSM called PCS1900, GSM systemsexist on every continent, and the acronym GSM now aptly stands for GlobalSystem for Mobile communications.
1.2 Components of a GSM network:-1.2.1 Subscriber Equipment:-
Mobile Station (MS) - The mobile telephone.
1.2.2 The Network & Switching Subsystem (NSS):-
Home Location Register (HLR) - A database which stores data about GSMsubscribers, including the Individual Subscriber Authentication Key (Ki) for each Subscriber Identity Module (SIM).Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC) - The network element whichperforms the telephony switching functions of the GSM network. The MSCis responsible for toll ticketing, network interfacing, common channelsignaling.Visitor Location Register (VLR) - A database which stores temporaryinformation about roaming GSM subscribers.Authentication Center (AUC) - A database which contains the InternationalMobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) the Subscriber Authentication key (Ki),and the defined algorithms for encryption.Equipment Identity Register (EIR) - A database which contains informationabout the identity of mobile equipment in order to prevent calls from stolen,unauthorized, or defective mobile stations.
1.2.3 The Base Station Subsystem (BSS):-
Base Station Controller (BSC) - The network element which provides all thecontrol functions and physical links between the MSC and BTS. The BSCprovides functions such as handover, cell configuration data, and control of radio frequency (RF) power levels in Base Transceiver Stations.Base Transceiver Station (BTS) - The network element which handles theradio interface to the mobile station. The BTS is the radio equipment(transceivers and antennas) needed to service each cell in the network.
1.2.4 The Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS):-
Message Center - A network element which provides Short Message Service(SMS), voice mail, fax mail, email, and paging.Mobile Service Node (MSN) - A network element which provides mobileintelligent network (IN) services.
Gateway Mobile Services Switching Center (GMSC) - A network elementused to interconnect two GSM networks.GSM Interworking Unit (GIWU) - The network element which interfaces tovarious data networks.
1.2.5 International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)Number:-
The IMSI is a unique non-dialable number allocated to each mobilesubscriber in the GSM system that identifies the subscriber and his or her subscription within the GSM network. The IMSI resides in the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM), which is transportable across Mobile StationEquipment (MSE). The IMSI is made up of three parts (1) the mobilecountry code (MCC) consisting of three digits, (2) the Mobile Network Code(MNC) consisting of two digits, and (3) the Mobile Subscriber IdentityNumber (MSIN) with up to 10 digits.
1.2.6 Mobile Subscriber ISDN (MSISDN) Number:-
The MSISDN is the dial able number that callers use to reach a mobilesubscriber. Some phones can support multiple MSISDNs - for example, aU.S.-based MSISDN and a Canadian-based MSISDN. Callers dialing either number will reach the subscriber.
1.2.7 Mobile Station Equipment (MSE) Subscription Services:
GSM carriers typically order Mobile Station Equipment (MSE) (or GSMphones) from their suppliers (Nokia, Motorola, Sony, etc.) in large quantities(e.g. 1000 Units). After receiving an order, the equipment supplier willprogram the ordered MSE SIMs with a range of IMSI numbers.
: ABC Communications Inc. orders 1000 MSE Units with thefollowing range of IMSIs.
310 68 4451000
Unit #1000
310 68 4451999

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