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SDH_ALCATEL

SDH_ALCATEL

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Published by Kenneth Kennedy

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Published by: Kenneth Kennedy on Apr 09, 2011
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©
1996 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
iBELL EDUCATION CENTRE770 00438 1030–VHBE
HANDOUT
SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL HIERARCHY
Edition : 03
 
©
1996 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
iiBELL EDUCATION CENTRE 770 00438 1030VHBE
The Bell Education Centre put in a great effort to give you this document. In case you haveany remarks, do not hesitate to send us your comments.Our Training Directory describes all training programmes and modules this document (andothers) is used in.This document was especially written for use during class instruction.The contents of this document are generic. It deals with concepts and principles, rather thanwith the latest releases of and modifications to the product delivered to the customers.International audiences use this document. It is therefore written in a clear, concise andabove all, consistent language.
 
©
1996 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
iii770 00438 1030–VHBEBELL EDUCATION CENTRE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. EVOLUTION TOWARDS SDH3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1 COMPLEXITY3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.1.1 THE PROBLEM IN PDH – Back–to–back multiplexing6. . . . . . .1.1.2 THE SOLUTION IN SDH Add/Drop multiplexer10. . . . . . . . . . .1.2 TRANSMISSION HIERARCHY11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2.1 THE PROBLEM IN PDH – Different hierarchies11. . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2.2 THE SOLUTION IN SDH One higher order hierarchy11. . . . . .1.3 MANAGEMENT12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.3.1 THE PROBLEM IN PDH – Limited possibilities12. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.3.2 THE SOLUTION IN SDH Powerful management12. . . . . . . . . .1.4 ADVANTAGES OF SDH 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. DESCRIPTION OF SDH13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1 SDH FRAMES13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2 NETWORK ARCHITECTURE15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.3 SDH TERMINOLOGY16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.4 MULTIPLEXING STRUCTURES23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.5 SECTION LAYER OVERHEADS27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.5.1 REGENERATOR SECTION OVERHEAD29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.5.2 MULTIPLEXER SECTION OVERHEAD30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.6 POINTERS34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.6.1 THE POINTER MECHANISM34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.6.2 ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT POINTERS34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.6.3 TRIBUTARY UNIT POINTERS43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.7 PATH LAYER OVERHEADS49. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.7.1 HIGHER ORDER POH49. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.7.2 LOWER ORDER POH53. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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