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Admiralty Manual of Navigation ch 16

Admiralty Manual of Navigation ch 16

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Published by: rbercian on Apr 09, 2011
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02/14/2013

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CH.\PTER
It)
Navigational
Errors
INTRODUCTION
Thischaptcrdi.'ic!IS~(,Sn;t\·i.1!;ationClI
!TroT'S
and
how
til('
navigatormav
rec()gnise.uiddeal
with
the-m.Tothis
end,
abroad
undcrst.uiding
isncedeoor
ih«
prohabilit\orerrorsa.sitailcctsn;l\·ig·ation.Themat
hr-mat
icsorone-andtwo-dimrusional
r-rrorsarc
setoutinanannexattheendofthe
ch.rprcr.
Thequantificationorparticularerrorsintermsordistance,t;IVellcertaillparamctCl's,i.ssetoutinAppendix7.
Evr-rvri
;t
positionlineisobtainedfrom.mvsource(celestialobservation,visua]bearing,radarrange,radiofixingaid),thenavigatormustbeabletojudgeitslikclvaccuracy,andthustheaccuracyoftheship'spositionobtained
Irorn
theintersectionoftwoormoreorthosepositionlines.Similarlv,whendeterminingtheship's
DR
positionortheEP,anassessmentorthelikely,lccllracyorthatpositionmustbemade.Forexample(Fig.16-1),theship'spositionhasbeenfixedat
A
at0600hvcelestialobservations.The
DR,
B,
andtheEP,
C,
havebeenplottedonat0700,asexplaincdinChapterB..
\t
OiOO,asinglevisualpositionline
DE
isobtainedfromtheoilproductionplatform
F.
Whatpositionshouldbechosenfor0700:
F~
o
E
.s-:
~-
0700...---
 
~.'i6
CH.\PTER
lfi-'\.\
VI(;.\TIO'\.\LERRORS
Thenavigatormayconsider:"hadagoodset
or
starsat
(j1)1)().
Ihave
all
accurateplottingtableandhottomlogsothatthecoursesteercdandspccdsteamedthroughthewater,
.1B,
between
()f}UO
and07()()arc,Ithink,reliable.Iamnotquitesosureaboutmyestimatesoflccwav,setanddrift,
He.
ButIknowthatIamontheline
D/:'
at0700.Iwillthereforetakepoint(;(where
Ct,
isperpendicularto
D/:'
andsoGisthenearestpointto
C
ontheline
/)F)
as
111\'
0700EPandworkfromthatformyestimateoffuturepositions.'Consider,however.thelikclverrorsintheobservedpositionat0600,intheDRandtheEPat0700,andintheplottedbearingoftheoilproductionplatformat0700.Thenavigatorneedstotakeintoaccountthefollowing:
I.Theerrorintheobservedpositionat()(jOO.
Thepractisedobservercannormallyexpecttoobtainacelestialfixtowithinabout2milesofthetrueposition
Oil
almostalloccasions.Butapoorhorizonorrefractiondifferentfromthenormalcancauselargererrorsthanthisfromtimetotime.
2.TheerrorinthedeterminationoftheDRandtheEP.
Assumingtheavailabilityofagyro-compasswhoseerrorhasbeenrecentlycheckedandareliableelectromagneticbottomlog,residualerrorsinagyro-compassanditsassociatedtransmissionsystemcouldbeoftheorderof!O
to
I
°
whiletheerrorintheelectromagneticlogcouldbeasmuchasI%
to
2%.
*
Thenthereistheerrorinherentintheevaluationofleeway,tidalstream,currentandsurfacedrift.Thisdependsasmuchonthequalityoftheavailabledataasontheskillofthenavigatorininterpretingboththosedataandtheeffectoftheweather.
It
islikely,therefore,thattheerrorintheEPcouldheasmuchas3%to5%ofthedistancerunsincethepreviousfix.Occasionallytheerrormaybemorethanthis.
3.Atryresidualbutunknownerrorinthegyro-compasstogetherwithsmallhutunpredictableerrorsinthetakingandplottingofthevisualbearingat0700.
Thesemaybeasmuchas
±
1°.TheseeffectsareshowninFig.16--2.Apositioncircle,radius2miles,isdrawnaround
A
toshowthelikelyareacoveredbytheobservedposition.By0700,thispositioncirclewillhavegrownwithtimeaccordingtotheerrorsinthecoursesteered,thedistancesteamed,anderrorsintheestimationofleeway,andthesetandrateofthetidalstream,current,
etc.
Thebearingoftheoilplatform
DE
isplottedshowingthe
±
limits.Thenavigatorcannowreducehispositioncircleat0700
to
thearea
KLA/N.
AsthechosenpointGalsolieswithinthearea
KLHN,
thisratherlengthyassessmentofthepositionareaat0700mayseemunnecessary.Theplottedbearingoftheproductionplatformmight,however,falloutsidethenavigator'sestimateofthelikelypositioncircleat0700,e.g.
PQ
inFig.16--2.Thenavigatormustthenreviewthesituationtoestablishwhathasgonewrong.Hastheobservedpositionbeencalculatedcorrectly;hastheDRbeenplottedcorrectly;hastheproductionplatformbeenproperlyidentified?Indifferentcircumstances,thenavigatormaybepassingclosetoshoalsbetweenhimand
*
Thi,tTr"r
.ixxurnes
thatthelog
11,1'
hf't'llcOIT"cdvcalihrated.
 
~
c0
FJ
0
~
/P
Fig.It}'-'LPlotting
t
lu:position,lakinglikrlv
('nors
into.ucount
theproduction
platform
andwould
he
wiseto
d100SC
an
ll7()O
EP
inthe
art-a
KLIIS
whichassumesthemost'dangerous'position,c.g.
.v
illFig.
16-'2.
perhapscalling
lill'
corrr-cnveaction..\11practicalnavigationalworkfrequentlyinvolvesdealingwitherrorsofsomekindorother.Thenavigatorneedstobeable
to
discriminatebetween<Inerrorcaused
by
amistake.anerrorin
a
particularpiece
ofequipment
whichcanheallowedforin
SOIne
W,lY
\c.g.
anerror
ill
thcgvro-compass).andanerrorcausedatrandom.
NAVIGATIONALACCURACIES
If
shipsarc
to
henavigatedsafely,theremustalwavsheamaximumacceprabk-limit
to
navigationalaccuracy.Theultimateaimillanynavigationalsystemistoensurethattheshipremainswithinpredeterminedacceptable
safe
limits.
Definitions
Thefollowingdefinitionsapply.
Accuracy.
Accuracymaylx-
expressed
inanumberofwayswhichareexplainedlater,e.g.
rootmean\"1l'Ulre
dis/ana
lci'I1IJ:
one.twoorthreesigma
(la.'la.
:)ai:
circular
error
probable
leEP).
Equally
andrnoresimplv,it
mav
heexpressedintermsofapern>ntag{'probahility.Theaccuracylimits
or
navizationpositionlines.fixes,
etc.
shouldbeStichthat
t
herr-isa(I;)'X,probabilitythattheactualpositionlineorlixronrt-rnr-diswithinthelimit
q
uorr-d.
Precision.
Pn'cisiol1relatestothe
rr-Iincmr
nttowhich
avalue
isstated.Forexample.
a
celcstial
posirionline-may1)('
st.urd
to
til!'
nearest
O'.'.!
hut.
bcculsc
()frrrorsinrefraction.personalerror.
erc..
itmay
onlv
he
accuratf'
to
±'.!'.O
(1);)%
probabilitv).t'suall\·.thereislittlepointintabulatingaqu.uuitvtoagreater
prt-r
ision
rh.ui
i
lu-
aCClIr;ln
required,
hut
c;lil'ltIatiolls
i
nvolvi
nza11I11111)('rof
fl';lctiolls,;ilOlild
not
he'rounded
.)tr
toos(Jon,othrrwis«a
curnul.uiv«
(Tror
11Ia\
heinlr(,du('('d.

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