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Reduction of PAPR for OFDM Downlink and IFDMA Uplink Wireless Transmissions

Reduction of PAPR for OFDM Downlink and IFDMA Uplink Wireless Transmissions

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Published by ijcsis
One of the major drawbacks of OFDM is the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signals. In this paper, we propose a novel low complexity clipping scheme applicable to Interleaved-FDMA uplink and OFDM downlink systems for PAPR reduction. We show the performance of PAPR of the proposed Interleaved-FDMA scheme is better than traditional OFDMA for uplink transmission system. Our reduction of PAPR is 53% when IFDMA is used instead of OFDMA in the uplink transmission. We also examine an important trade-off relationship between clipping distortion and quantization noise when the clipping scheme is used for OFDM downlink systems. Our results show that we were able to reduce the PAP ratio by 50% and reduce the out-of-band radiation caused by clipping for OFDM downlink transmission system.
One of the major drawbacks of OFDM is the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signals. In this paper, we propose a novel low complexity clipping scheme applicable to Interleaved-FDMA uplink and OFDM downlink systems for PAPR reduction. We show the performance of PAPR of the proposed Interleaved-FDMA scheme is better than traditional OFDMA for uplink transmission system. Our reduction of PAPR is 53% when IFDMA is used instead of OFDMA in the uplink transmission. We also examine an important trade-off relationship between clipping distortion and quantization noise when the clipping scheme is used for OFDM downlink systems. Our results show that we were able to reduce the PAP ratio by 50% and reduce the out-of-band radiation caused by clipping for OFDM downlink transmission system.

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Published by: ijcsis on Apr 09, 2011
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Reduction of PAPR for OFDM Downlink and IFDMA Uplink Wireless Transmissions
Bader Hamad AlhassonDepartment of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of DenverDenver, USA
Abstract-- One of the major drawbacks of OFDM is the highpeak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signals.In this paper, we propose a novel low complexity clipping schemeapplicable to Interleaved-FDMA uplink and OFDM downlinksystems for PAPR reduction. We show the performance of PAPRof the proposed Interleaved-FDMA scheme is better thantraditional OFDMA for uplink transmission system. Ourreduction of PAPR is 53% when IFDMA is used instead of OFDMA in the uplink transmission. We also examine animportant trade-off relationship between clipping distortion andquantization noise when the clipping scheme is used for OFDMdownlink systems. Our results show that we were able to reducethe PAP ratio by 50% and reduce the out-of-band radiationcaused by clipping for OFDM downlink transmission system.Keywords-component-- Signal to quantization noise ratio(SQNR);Localized-frequency-division-multiple-access (LFDMA);interleaved-frequency-division-multiple-access (IFDMA); peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR); clipping ratio (CR); singlecarrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA).
I.
 
INTRODUCTION
 
Wireless communication has experienced an incredible growthin the last decade. Two decades ago the number of mobilesubscribers was less than 1% of the world’s population [1]. In2001, the number of mobile subscribers was 16% of theworld’s population [1]. By the end of 2001 the number of countries worldwide having a mobile network hastremendously increased from just 3% to over 90% [2]. Inreality the number of mobile subscribers worldwide exceededthe number of fixed-line subscribers in 2002 [2]. As of 2010the number of mobile subscribers was around 73% of theworld’s population which is around to 5 billion mobilesubscribers [1].In addition to mobile phones WLAN has experienced a rapidgrowth during the last decade. IEEE 802.11 a/b/g/n is a set of standards that specify the physical and data link layers inMohammad A. MatinDepartment of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of DenverDenver, USAad-hoc mode or access point for current wide use. In 1997WLAN standard – IEEE 802.11, also known as Wi-Fi, wasfirst developed with speeds of up to 2 Mbps [2]. At present,WLANs are capable of offering speeds up-to 600 Mbps for theIEEE 802.11n utilizing OFDM as a modulation technique inthe 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz license-free industrial, scientific andmedical (ISM) bands. It is important to note that WLANs donot offer the type of mobility, which mobile systems offer. Inour previous work, we modeled a mix of low mobility1.8mph, and high mobility, 75mph with a delay spread that isconstantly slighter than the guard time of the OFDM symbolto predict complex channel gains by the user
 
by means of reserved pilot subcarriers [3].Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is abroadband multicarrier modulation scheme. Research onmulti-carrier transmission started to be an interesting researcharea [4-6]. OFDM modulation scheme leads to betterperformance than a single carrier scheme over wirelesschannels since OFDM uses a large number of orthogonal,narrowband sub-carrier that are transmitted simultaneously inparallel. We investigated the channel capacity and bit errorrate of MIMO-OFDM [7]. The use of OFDM scheme is thesolution to the increase demand for future bandwidth-hungrywireless applications [8]. Some of the wireless technologiesusing OFDM are Long-Term Evolution (LTE). LTE is thestandard for 4G cellular technology, ARIB MMAC in Japanhave adopted the OFDM transmission technology as aphysical layer for future broadband WLAN systems, ETSIBRAN in Europe and Wireless local-area networks (LANs)such as Wi-Fi. Due to the robustness of OFDM systemsagainst multipath fading, the integration of OFDM technologyand radio over fiber (RoF) technology made it possible totransform the high speed RF signal to the optical signalutilizing the optical fibers with broad bandwidth [9].Nevertheless, OFDM suffers from high peak to average powerratio (PAPR) in both the uplink and downlink which results inmaking the OFDM signal a complex signal
 
[10].
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 3, March 20116 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
Figure.1 Fresnel diagram illustrating the PAPR issue
Figure.1 shows a constructive addition of subcarriers on arandom basis which causes the peak-to-average power ratioproblem. The outcome of high PAPR on the transmittedOFDM symbols results in two disadvantages high bit errorrate and inference between adjacent channels. This wouldimply the need for linear amplification. The consequence of linear amplification is more power consumption. This hasbeen an obstacle that limits the optimal use of OFDM as amodulation and demodulation technique [11-14]. The problemof PARP affects the uplink and downlink channels differently.On the downlink, it’s simple to overcome this problem by theuse of power amplifiers and distinguished PAPR reductionmethods. These reduction methods can’t be applied to theuplink due to their difficulty in low processing power devicessuch as mobile devices. On the uplink, it is important toreduce the cost of power amplifiers as well.PAPR reduction schemes have been studied for years [15-18].Some of the PAPR reduction techniques are: Codingtechniques which can reduce PAPR at the expense of bandwidth efficiency and increase in complexity [19-20]. Theprobabilistic technique which includes SLM, PTS, TR and TIcan also reduce PAPR; however; suffers from complexity andspectral efficiency for large number of subcarriers [21-22].We perform an analysis on a low complexity clipping andfiltering scheme to reduce both the PAPR and the out-of-band-radiation caused by the clipping distortion in downlink systems. It was also shown that a SC-FDMA system withInterleaved-FDMA or Localized-FDMA performs better thanOrthogonal-FDMA in the uplink transmission.II. SYSTEM MODEL
Figure 2 Clipping and Filtering at the Transmitter of OFDM system
In complex baseband, an OFDM signal
)(
x
during timeinterval
u
mmT 
)1(
can be expressed as
ft jm
eaxx
 
21010
)()(
(1)Where
)(
x
is the
kth
modulated subcarrier at afrequency
.
. The modulation symbol
)(
m
a
isapplied to the
kth
subcarrier during the
mth
OFDMinterval which is
u
mmT 
)1(
. Therefore, duringeach OFDM symbol interval transmission,
modulationsymbols are transmitted in parallel. The modulation symbolsare dependent on the use of this technology and can be anyform of modulation such as 16QAM, 64QAM or QPSK. Thechoice of which modulation scheme to implement variesdepending on the environment and application.
Figure 3 OFDM modulation valid for time interval
u
mmT 
)1(
.
Subcarriers spacing range hundreds of kHz to a small numberof kHz depending on the environment of operation. Once thespacing between subcarriers has been specified, then thechoice of how many subcarriers to be transmitted in parallelhas to be done. It is important to note that allocation of thenumber of subcarriers is dependent on the transmissionbandwidth. For instance, LTE uses 15 kHz as the basicspacing with a 600 subcarriers assuming the operation is in the10 MHZ spectrum.Let us consider two modulated OFDM subcarriers
)(
1
x
and
)(
2
x
. The two signals are
orthogonal
over the time period
u
mmT 
)1(
 
uu
mmT 
dt xx
)1(*21
)()(
 
Serial toparallel
+
mmm
aaa
110
,...,,
 
m
a
0
m
a
1
m
a
1
j
e
0
2
 
)(
0
x
)(
1
x
j
e
1
2
 
j
e
1
2
 
)(
1
x
)(
x
Max linear limit
FilteringIFFT Clipping
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 3, March 20117 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
0
21
22)1(*21
dt eeaa
jj mmT 
uu
  
 for
21
(2)Therefore, OFDM transmission can be expressed as themodulation of a set of orthogonal functions
)(
 
, where
)(
 
=
ft j
e
 
2
 
u
0
,
0 otherwise
(3)
Figure 4. OFDM available bandwidth is divided into subcarriers that aremathematically orthogonal to each other
III. DISTRIBUTION of THE PAP RARIOThe complex baseband signal for one OFDM symbol can berewritten as:
)exp(1)(
1
jax
nnn
 
(4)Where N is the number of subcarriers and
n
a
are themodulating symbols. From the central limit theorem, we canassume that the real and imaginary parts of the time domaincomplex OFDM signal
)(
x
have a Gaussian distribution fora large number of subcarriers. Therefore, the amplitude of theOFDM signal
)(
x
follows a Rayleigh distribution, whereaspower follows a central chi-square distribution with thecumulative distribution expressed as:
z
ez
1)(
(5)OFDM system with a certain number of subcarriers suffersfrom maximum power which arises when all of the subcarriersadd up coherently with identical phases. The largest PAPRhappens randomly with a very low probability. The maininterest is actually in the probability of the occurrence of highsignal power. This high signal power is out of the linear rangeof high power amplifiers. The probability PAPR is below acertain threshold can be expressed as:
zzzPAPRP
))exp(1()()(
(6)Equation (6) holds for samples that are mutually uncorrelated;however; when over sampling is applied then it doesn’t hold.This is due to the fact that a sampled signal doesn’t certainlyinclude the maximum point of the original continuous timesignal. Nevertheless, it is important to note that it is difficult toderive the exact cumulative distribution function for the peak power distribution. The following simplified proposed PAPdistribution will be used:
zz
 
))exp(1()(
2
(7)Where
 
has been found by fitting the theoretical CDF intothe actual one. From our simulation, it was shown that
 
=2.8is suitable for adequately a large number of subcarriers.The theoretical and simulated curves are plotted in Figure 5for different number of subcarriers. As N decreases, thedeviation between the obtained simulation and theoreticalresults increases, which indicates that equation (7) is quiteaccurate for N>256. It is worth noting that equation (6) ismore accurate for large CDF values as shown in Figure 5.
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1110
-2
10
-1
10
0
PAPR[dB]
CCDF
 TheoreticalSimulated
 
Figure 5 OFDM system with N-point FFT. CCDFs of signal PAP ratio withN=16, 32, 64, 128 and 1024. Solid lines are calculated; dotted lines aresimulated.
FrequencyGuard BandUser BUser APilot
N=16N=64N=32N=128N=512N=1024
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 3, March 20118 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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