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IEEE 802.16 OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) technology has emerged as a promising technology for broadband access in a Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) environment. In this paper, we address the problem of queueing theoretic performance modeling and analysis of OFDMA under broad-band wireless networks. We consider a single-cell IEEE 802.16 environment in which the base station allocates subchannels to the subscriber stations in its coverage area. The subchannels allocated to a subscriber station are shared by multiple connections at that subscriber station. To ensure the Quality of Service (QoS) performances, a Connection Admission Control (CAC) scheme is considered at a subscriber station. A queueing analytical framework for these admission control schemes is presented considering OFDMA-based transmission at the physical layer. Then, based on the queueing model, both the connection-level and the packet-level performances are studied and compared with their analogues in the case without CAC. The connection arrival is modeled by a Poisson process and the packet arrival for a connection by a two-state Markov Modulated Poisson Process (MMPP). We determine analytically and numerically different performance parameters, such as connection blocking probability, average number of ongoing connections, average queue length, packet dropping probability, queue throughput and average packet delay.

IEEE 802.16 OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) technology has emerged as a promising technology for broadband access in a Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) environment. In this paper, we address the problem of queueing theoretic performance modeling and analysis of OFDMA under broad-band wireless networks. We consider a single-cell IEEE 802.16 environment in which the base station allocates subchannels to the subscriber stations in its coverage area. The subchannels allocated to a subscriber station are shared by multiple connections at that subscriber station. To ensure the Quality of Service (QoS) performances, a Connection Admission Control (CAC) scheme is considered at a subscriber station. A queueing analytical framework for these admission control schemes is presented considering OFDMA-based transmission at the physical layer. Then, based on the queueing model, both the connection-level and the packet-level performances are studied and compared with their analogues in the case without CAC. The connection arrival is modeled by a Poisson process and the packet arrival for a connection by a two-state Markov Modulated Poisson Process (MMPP). We determine analytically and numerically different performance parameters, such as connection blocking probability, average number of ongoing connections, average queue length, packet dropping probability, queue throughput and average packet delay.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Volume 9 No. 3, March 2011

Performance Analysis of Connection AdmissionControl Scheme in IEEE 802.16 OFDMA Networks

Abdelali EL BOUCHTI, Said EL KAFHALI and Abdelkrim HAQIQ

Computer, Networks, Mobility and Modeling laboratorye- NGN research group, Africa and Middle EastFST, Hassan 1st University, Settat, MoroccoEmails: {a.elbouchti, kafhalisaid, ahaqiq} @gmail.com

Abstract

—IEEE 802.16 OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency DivisionMultiple Access) technology has emerged as a promisingtechnology for broadband access in a Wireless Metropolitan AreaNetwork (WMAN) environment. In this paper, we address theproblem of queueing theoretic performance modeling andanalysis of OFDMA under broad-band wireless networks. Weconsider a single-cell IEEE 802.16 environment in which the basestation allocates subchannels to the subscriber stations in itscoverage area. The subchannels allocated to a subscriber stationare shared by multiple connections at that subscriber station. Toensure the Quality of Service (QoS) performances, a ConnectionAdmission Control (CAC) scheme is considered at a subscriberstation. A queueing analytical framework for these admissioncontrol schemes is presented considering OFDMA-basedtransmission at the physical layer. Then, based on the queueingmodel, both the connection-level and the packet-levelperformances are studied and compared with their analogues inthe case without CAC. The connection arrival is modeled by aPoisson process and the packet arrival for a connection by a two-state Markov Modulated Poisson Process (MMPP). Wedetermine analytically and numerically different performanceparameters, such as connection blocking probability, averagenumber of ongoing connections, average queue length, packetdropping probability, queue throughput and average packetdelay.

Keywords-component: WiMAX, OFDMA, MMPP, QueueingTheory, Performance Parameters.

I. I

NTRODUCTION

The evolution of the IEEE 802.16 standard [14] has spurredtremendous interest from the network operators seeking todeploy high performance, cost-effective broadband wirelessnetworks. With the aid of the Worldwide Interoperability forMicrowave Access (WiMAX) organization [1], severalcommercial implementations of WiMAX cellular networkshave been launched, based on OFDMA for non-line-of-sightapplications. The IEEE 802.16/WiMAX [2] can offer a highdata rate, low latency, advanced security, quality of service(QoS), and low-cost deployment.OFDMA is a promising wireless access technology for thenext generation broad-band packet networks. With OFDMA,which is based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM), the wireless access performance can be substantiallyimproved by transmitting data via multiple parallel channels,and also it is robust to inter-symbol interference andfrequency-selective fading. OFDMA has been adopted as thephysical layer transmission technology for IEEE802.16/WiMAX-based broadband wireless networks.Although the IEEE 802.16/WiMAX standard [12] defines thephysical layer specifications and the Medium Access Control(MAC) signaling mechanisms, the radio resource managementmethods such as those for Connection Admission Control(CAC) and dynamic bandwidth adaptation are left open.However, to guarantee QoS performances (e.g., call blockingrate, packet loss, and delay), efficient admission control isnecessary in a WiMAX network at both the subscriber and thebase stations.The admission control problem was studied extensively forwired networks (e.g., for ATM networks) and also fortraditional cellular wireless systems. The classical approachfor CAC in a mobile wireless network is to use the guardchannel scheme [5] in which a portion of wirelessresources (e.g., channel bandwidth) is reserved for handoff traffic. A more general CAC scheme, namely, the fractionalguard scheme, was proposed [13] in which a handoff call/connection is accepted with a certain probability. Toanalyze various connection admission control algorithms,analytical models based on continuous-time Markov chain,were proposed [4]. However, most of these models dealt onlywith call/connection-level performances (e.g., new callblocking and handoff call dropping probabilities) for thetraditional voice-oriented cellular networks. In addition to theconnection-level performances, packet-level (i.e., in-connection) performances also need to be considered for data-oriented packet-switched wireless networks such as WiMAXnetworks.An earlier relevant work was reported by the authors in[10]. They considered a similar model in OFDMA based-IEEE 802.16 but they modeled both the connection-level andpacket-level by tow different Poisson processes and theycompared various QoS measures of CAC schemes. In [15], theauthors proposed a Discrete-Time Markov Chain (DTMC)framework based on a Markov Modulated Poisson Process(MMPP) traffic model to analyze VoIP performance. TheMMPP processes are very suitable for formulating the multi-user VoIP traffic and capturing the interframe dependencybetween consecutive frames.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Volume 9 No. 3, March 2011

In this paper, we present a connection admission controlscheme for a multi-channel and multi-user OFDMA network,in which the concept of guard channel is used to limit thenumber of admitted connections to a certain threshold. Aqueueing analytical model is developed based on a three-DTMC which captures the system dynamics in terms of thenumber of connections and queue status. We assume that theconnection arrival and the packet arrival for a connectionfollow a Poisson process and a two-state MMPP processrespectively. Based on this model, various performanceparameters such as connection blocking probability, averagenumber of ongoing connections, average queue length,probability of packet dropping due to lack of buffer space,queue throughput, and average queueing delay are obtained.The numerical results reveal the comparative performancecharacteristics of the CAC and the without CAC algorithms inan OFDMA-based WiMAX network.The remainder of this paper is organized as follows.Section II describes the system model including the objectiveof CAC policy. The formulation of the analytical model forconnection admission control is presented in Section III. Insection IV we determine analytically different performanceparameters. Numerical results are stated in Section V. Finally,section VI concludes the paper.II.

MODEL

D

ESCRIPTION

A.

System model

We consider a single cell in a WiMAX network with a basestation and multiple subscriber stations (Figure 1). Eachsubscriber station serves multiple connections. Admissioncontrol is used at each subscriber station to limit the number of ongoing connections through that subscriber station. At eachsubscriber station, traffic from all uplink connections areaggregated into a single queue [11]. The size of this queue isfinite (i.e.,

L

packets) in which some packets will be dropped if the queue is full upon their arrivals. The OFDMA transmitter atthe subscriber station retrieves the head of line packet(s) andtransmits them to the base station. The base station mayallocate different number of subchannels to different subscriberstations. For example, a subscriber station with higher prioritycould be allocated more number of subchannels

.

Figure 1. System model

B.

CAC Plicy

The main objective of a CAC mechanism is to limit thenumber of ongoing connections/flows so that the QoSperformances can be guaranteed for all the ongoingconnections. Then, the admission control decision is made toaccept or reject an incoming connection. To ensure the QoSperformances of the ongoing connections, the following CACscheme for subscriber stations are proposed. A threshold C isused to limit the number of ongoing connections. When a newconnection arrives, the CAC module checks whether the totalnumber of connections including the incoming one is less thanor equal to the threshold C. If it is true, then the newconnection is accepted, otherwise it is rejected.III. F

ORMULATION OF THE

A

NALYTICAL

M

ODEL

A.

Formulation of the Queueing Model

An analytical model based on DTMC is presented toanalyze the system performances at both the connection-leveland at the packet-level for the connection admission schemesdescribed before. We assume that packet arrival for aconnection follows a two-state MMPP process [3] which isidentical for all connections in the same queue. The connectioninter-arrival time and the duration of a connection are assumedto be exponentially distributed with average

1/

and

1/

,respectively.An MMPP is a stochastic process in which the intensity of a Poisson process is defined by the states of a Markov chain.That is, the Poisson process can be modulated by a Markovchain. As mentioned before, an MMPP process can be used tomodel time-varying arrival rates and can capture the inter-frame dependency between consecutive frames ([6], [7], [8]).The transition rate matrix and the Poisson arrival rate matrix of the two-state MMPP process can be expressed as follows:

01 01 010 101

0, =0

MMPP

q qQq q

(1)The steady-state probabilities of the underlying Markov chainare given by:

10 01,0 ,101 10 01 10

( , ) ( , )

MMPP MMPP

q qq q q q

(2)The mean steady state arrival rate generated by the MMPP is:

10 0 01 101 10

T MMPP MMPP

q qq q

(3)where

T

is the transpose of the row vector

0 1

( , )

.The state of the system is described by theprocess

1 2

( , , )

t t t

X X X X

, where

X

is the state of anirreducible continuous time Markov chain and

1

t

X

(respectively

2

t

X

) is the number of packets in the aggregatedqueue (the number of ongoing connections) at the end of everytime slot

t

.Thus, the state space of the system is given by:

{( , , )/ {0,1}, 0 , 0}

E i j k i j L k

.

.

For the CAC algorithm, the number of packet arrivalsdepends on the number of connections. The state transitiondiagram is shown in (Figure 2). Here,

0 1

( , )

and

denoterates and not probabilities.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Volume 9 No. 3, March 2011

Note that the probability that

n

Poisson events with averagerate

occur during an interval T can be obtained as follows:

( )( )!

T nn

e T f n

(4)This function is required to determine the probability of both connection and packet arrivals.Figure 2. State transition diagram of discrete time Markovchain.

B.

CAC Algorithm

In this case, the transition matrix

Q

for the number of connections in the system can be expressed as follows:

0,0 0,10,1 1,1 1,22, 1 1, 1 1,1, ,

qq q qq q qq q

C C C C C C C C C C

qQ

(5)where each row indicates the number of ongoing connections.As the length of a frame

T

is very small compared withconnection arrival and departure rates, we assume that themaximum number of arriving and departing connections in aframe is one. Therefore, the elements of this matrix can beobtained as follows:

, 1 1 1, 1 1 1, 1 1 1 1

( ) (1 ( )), k=0,1,...,C-1(1 ( )) ( ), k=1,2,...,C( ) ( ) (1 ( )) (1 ( )), k=0,1,...,C

k k k k k k

q f f k q f f k q f f k f f k

(6)where

, 1

k k

q

,

, 1

k k

q

and

,

k k

q

represent the cases that thenumber of ongoing connections increases by one, decreases byone, and does not change, respectively.

C.

Transition Matrix for the Queue

The transition matrix

P

of the entire system can beexpressed as follows. The rows of matrix

P

represent thenumber of packets (

j

) in the queue.

0,0 0,,0 , ,, , ,

p

AR R R R R Aj j R j j j j R

p pp p pPp p

(7)Matrices

, '

j j

p

represent the changes in the number of packets in the queue (i.e., the number of packets in the queuechanging from

j

in the current frame to

'

j

in the next frame).We first establish matrices

( , ),( , ')

v

i j i j

, where the diagonalelements of these matrices are given as follows.For

{0,1,2,..., }

r D

and

{0,1,2,...,( )}, 1,2,...,

n k A l D

,and

1,2,...,( )

m k A

. The non-diagonal elements of

( , ),( , ')

v

i j i j

are all zero.

( , );( , )1, 1

v ( )[ ]

i j i j l n i r k k n r l

f k R

( , );( , )1, 1

v ( )[ ]

i j i j m n i r k k r n m

f k R

(8)

( , );( , )1, 1

v ( )[ ]

i j i j n i r k k r n

f k R

Here

A

is the maximum number of packets that can arrivefrom one connection in one frame,

R

indicates the maximumnumber of packets that can be transmitted in one frameand

D

is the maximum number of packets that can betransmitted in one frame by all of the allocated subchannelsallocated to that particular queue and it can be obtained from

min ( , )

D R j

. This is due to the fact that the maximumnumber of transmitted packets depends on the number of packets in the queue and the maximum possible number of transmissions in one frame. Note that,

( , );( , )1, 1

v

i j i j lk k

,

( , );( , )1, 1

v

i j i j mk k

and

( , );( , )1, 1

v

i j i jk k

represent the probability thatthe number of packets in the queue increases by

n

, decreasesby

m

, and does not change, respectively, when there are

k

ongoing connections. Here,

,

v

i j

denotes the element at row

i

and column

j

of matrix v, and these elements are obtainedbased on the assumption that the packet arrivals for theongoing connections are independent of each other.Finally, we obtain the matrices

, '

j j

p

by combining both theconnection-level and the queue-level transitions as follows:

, ' ( , ),( , ')

v

j j i j i j

p Q

(9)

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