transmitting the light through the finger , acquiringfingerprint patterns under the surface of skin using light witha wavelength of 660 nm. However, such sensing systems –  have an inherent problem as they use only a singlecapturing device, such as CMOS or CCD cameras. whencapturing an image using a single camera, the geometricalresolution of the fingerprint image decreases from thefingerprint center towards the side area . Therefore, falsefeatures may be obtained in the side area and it reduces thevalid and useful region for authentication. Moreover, if thereis a view difference between images due to finger rolling, itreduces the common area between fingerprints and degradessystem performance. To solve this problem, 3-D touchlesssensing systems using more than one view have beenexplored –. TBS  used five cameras placed arounda finger to capture nail-to-nail fingerprint images andgenerated a 3-D fingerprint image using the
method. They then unwrapped the 3-D finger image onto a 2-D image by using parametric andnonparametric models to make rolled-equivalent images .Fatehpuria
 proposed a 3-D touchless device usingmultiple cameras and structured light illumination (SLI). Thestructured light patterns are projected onto a finger to obtainits 3-D shape information and 2-D unfolded images aregenerated by applying “
” and some postprocessing steps. Also, the Hand Shot ID system wasdeveloped to acquire a 3-D shape of a hand with fingers bystitching images from 36 cameras . Although all thesemethods attempted to solve the problems in touch-basedsensors and acquire expanded fingerprint images with lessskin deformation, they did not raise much interest in themarket because of much higher costs compared toconventional touch-based sensors. Considering the aboveobservations, we adopt a new touchless sensing scheme usinga single camera and a set of mirrors. The mirrors work asvirtual cameras, thus enabling the capture of an expandedview of a fingerprint at one time without using multiplecameras. The device consists of a single camera, two planar mirrors, light-emitting diode (LED)-based illuminators, and alens. Two planar mirrors are used to reflect the left and rightside view of a finger. In this paper, we proposed a newmethod to enhance the touchless finger print and to extractthe minutiae data.
To overcome the view difference problem and thelimitation of a single view, some touchless fingerprintingsystems capture several different views of a finger by usingmultiple cameras. However, using multiple cameras increasesthe cost and size of a system. Thus, we adopt a new sensingsystem which captures three different views (frontal, right,and left) at one time by using a single camera and two planar mirrors. Figs. 2(a) and (b) show the prototype and schematicview of the device. As shown in Fig. 2, two mirrors areplaced next to the finger and reflect the right and left sideviews of the finger. Then, the frontal view and two mirror-reflected views are captured by a single camerasimultaneously. A mirror-reflected image is regarded as the“flipped” image taken by a virtual camera placed at adifferent direction compared to the real one. Therefore, wecan capture three different views of a fingerprint using onlyone Camera and also avoid the synchronization problemexisting in multiple camera-based systems. In addition, toobtain high-quality fingerprint images, we need to consider several optical components in order to design the device.
Fig. 2: Proposed device.(a)
Prototype of the device. (b) Schematic view of the device.
The specifications of the optical components are as follows:
Camera and lens
: We use a 1/3-in progressive scantype CCD with 1024 x 768 active pixels, where thepixel size is 4.65 x 4.65 m. This camera offers asufficient frame rate of 29 Hz, thus avoiding imageblurring caused by typical finger motion. Also, weuse simple equations [see (1) and (2)] to design anadequate lens for our system.
1 1 1
f p q
Where f is the lens focal length, p and q are the lens-to-object and lens-to-image distances, respectively,and M is the optical magnification. Normally, therequired image resolution for touch-based sensors is500 dpi. Therefore, to ensure a 500-dpi spatialresolution in the fingerprint area and to cover threeview fingerprints, the optical magnificationparameter M, the lens to image distance, and field of view (FOV) are determined as 0.1, 170 mm, and 50x 38 mm, respectively. By doing this, we cancapture three view images with 500-dpi resolution atone time. Also, the depth of field (DOF) of the lensranges from -2.6 to +2.6 mm at a given workingdistance and it normally covers the half depth of afinger.
Considering the reflectance of humanskin to various light sources, we used ring-shapedwhite LED illuminators and a band pass filter whichcan transmit green light to enhance the ridge-to-valley contrast. Also, the illuminators are placedperpendicular to the finger to remove the shadowingeffect. Diffusers are used to illuminate a finger uniformly.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 3, March 201153 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500