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Automatic Parsing For Arabic Sentences

Automatic Parsing For Arabic Sentences

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Published by ijcsis
The designed system is a parser for Arabic sentences using syntactic and semantic relations between deep and surface structures. The system depends on implementation of Case theory of Fillmore. The parsing algorithm starts analyzing the input sentence to check its syntax, semantic and spelling using Arabic transformation rules proposed in Al_Khouly to gain semantic strength. The proposed system depends on the effective elements represented by the verb of the sentence .This element is used to control the parsing operation. The proposed system permits as input different surface structures of Arabic sentences to produce automatic parsing forms for these input sentences.
The designed system is a parser for Arabic sentences using syntactic and semantic relations between deep and surface structures. The system depends on implementation of Case theory of Fillmore. The parsing algorithm starts analyzing the input sentence to check its syntax, semantic and spelling using Arabic transformation rules proposed in Al_Khouly to gain semantic strength. The proposed system depends on the effective elements represented by the verb of the sentence .This element is used to control the parsing operation. The proposed system permits as input different surface structures of Arabic sentences to produce automatic parsing forms for these input sentences.

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Published by: ijcsis on Apr 09, 2011
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Automatic parsing For Arabic sentences
Zainab Ali Khalaf*
 
School of computer scienceUniversiti Sains Malaysia (USM)Penang, MalaysiaE-mail:zak10_com026@student.usm.my*(Ass. Prof. In Computer Science Dept.,Basra University, Iraq)
Dr. Tan Tien Ping
 
School of computer scienceUniversiti Sains Malaysia (USM)Penang, MalaysiaE-mail:
tienping@cs.usm.my
 
Abstract
__
The designed system is a parser for Arabicsentences using syntactic and semantic relationsbetween deep and surface structures. The systemdepends on implementation of Case theory of Fillmore.
 
The parsing algorithm starts analyzing the inputsentence to check its syntax, semantic and spelling usingArabic transformation rules proposed in Al_Khouly togain semantic strength. The proposed system dependson the effective elements represented by the verb of thesentence .This element is used to control the parsingoperation.The proposed system permits as input differentsurface structures of Arabic sentences to produceautomatic parsing forms for these input sentences.
Keywords__Artificial intelligence; natural languageprocessing; transformation rules; deep structure and surface structure; parsing Arabic sentences .
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 Arabic language is a parsing language . Parsingmeans the relation among the words in the sentence.The most important component is the verb which actsas the basic unit to control the rules of choosing otherelements. Although Arabic sentences have differentstructures , but it is recognized as a ( verb , subject ,object ) language. The subject or the object may beprecede the verb in the Arabic sentences according tothe pragmatic necessity [1,3,4].Arabic Syntactic facilitates the flexibility of thedeep structure and the surface structure of sentence tobe connected together strongly. This propriety helps
 
Arabic language accept for automatic processing[4,5].The proposed system aims to use these propertiesto parse Arabic sentences depending on the positionof the words in the sentence and the functionalmeaning of them.II.
 
S
YSTEM
C
OMPONENTS
 The syntactical properties of any naturallanguage are formally described by the use of whatChomsky calls production systems. A formal systemgenerally depends on three types of data [2,3,6]:
A.
 
Data of vocabulary lexicon
The lexicon plays an important role in any NLPsystem. It is a huge data base of variable entriesdescribing the meaning of words in synonymy (andantinomy) contextual fashion [3,6]. The implementedlexicon consists of entries saved as a rule
( Entrance[ Word , Features ] ).
 
The Entrance
is one of the following indicators :-Verb , Noun , Preposition , Determinate , Assistantand Negation.The Word is a string index for the lexicon entry.
 
The Features
is a list of structured integers codedto hold the syntactical and
 
semantic information of the word. Each coded integer, written as
[Fp]
,consists of two parts F and p. The [p] part is either 1or 0 depending on whether the feature
[F]
exists ornot. The
[F]
part is the feature code.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 3, March 201158 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
B.
 
Data of syntactical rules
These rules are formalized to describe thelanguage in order to relate each one deep structureinto so many corresponding surface structures of thesame meaning. These rules are actually inductive andsequential. Some are obligatory and others areoptional rules. From the optional rules, one can obtainvarious surface structures that act as contextuallinguistics. The transformations are mainly operationsthat are addition, deletion, moving forward, movingbackward and some other secondary operations. Theseoperations are, in general, not performed at random,but are governed and selected according to a set of conditions and rules of structure description. Theseoperations will generate all surface structuresemerging from that one deep structure.
C.
 
Data of syntactic structure
These data are rules described in
BNF
forArabic language , and acts as constraints and controlsto form the sentences of Arabic language. The mostimportant component, as Fillmore and Shank recognized, is the verb element which acts as thebasic unit that controls rules of choosing otherelements. The dependent phrase structure rules usedare the following :-<Sentence> ::= <Modality> + < Auxiliary > + <Proposition ><Sentence> ::= < Auxiliary > + < Proposition > <Modality > ::= < External Condition > + < ExternalAdverb ><Proposition > ::= < Verb > + < Theme > + < IndirectObject > + < Place > + < Tool > + < Agent >< Theme > ::= < Noun Phrase >< Agent > ::= < Noun Phrase >< Tool > ::= < Noun Phrase >< Place > ::= < Noun Phrase >< Indirect Object > ::= < Noun Phrase ><Noun phrase> ::=<Proposition> + <determinate > + <Noun >< Noun Phrase > ::= < Proposition >+ < Noun>< External Condition > ::= semi statements used tocombine two sentences such as ( in spite of 

 

) or ( moreover
  
) etc.< External Adverb > ::= <Time Adverb>+<Interrogative Words> +<Negation Words>< Auxiliary > ::= lexical words such as (

) or (

) etc.< Verb > ::= A dictionary verb such as ( write

)etc.< Noun > ::= A dictionary noun such as ( boy

)etc.The presence of the verb is necessary and obligatory,whereas the presence of other elements is optionaland dependent on the verb rules [1,4].III.
 
D
ENESIGD SYSTEM STRUCTURE
 
The designed system has many stages : Figure (1)acts flowchart of these stages which are describedbelow :
A.
 
Input sentence stage
The function of this stage is to input Arabic sentencefrom the keyboard to the computer , this sentenceended by dot or semicolon or space character .
 
B.
 
Segmentation stage
The function of this stage is to segment the inputsentence into words depended on space character(free number of space characters).
C.
 
Lexicon search stage
The function of this stage is to search for all sentencewords in the lexicon . If the word is not found in thelexicon, the program gives spelling error messageand stop .
D.
 
Syntactical analysis stage
The function of this stage is to ensure and govern thecorrectness of input sentence from its syntactical side. If the processing found errors , the program givessyntactical error massage .
E.
 
Semantic analysis stage
The function of this stage is to ensure and govern thecorrectness of input sentence from its harmony, itsvocabulary and correctness of its meaning . If thesentence is not correct in its meaning, the programgives semantic error massage .
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 3, March 201159 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
F.
 
Generative deep structure stage
Transformational operations will carry out , and tryto compile the addition, deletion, replacement andother operations to obtain on the sentence structurewhich acts as the deep structure .
G.
 
Parsing stage
The function of this stage is to parse sentence whichdepends on its effective element and its position instructure phrase . This stage has many Arabiclanguage rules which control the parsing operations.Here an examples of sentences that the system canparse its :-
1
.
 
   
 
2
.
 
   
 
3
.
 
     
4
.
 
    
5
.
 
   
6
.
 
     
7
.
 
    
8
.
 
    
9
.
 
   
10
.
 
    
11
.
 
    
12
.
 
   
13
.
 
     
14
.
 
   
15
.
 
   
16
.
 
   
17
.
 
   
 
IV.
 
E
XAMPLES
 For example we want to know the parsing of thefollowing sentences. Figure (2) depicted thismechanism :-
 
A.
 
Example 1
   
 The system prints the following parsing :

:
       
.

:
   
.

:
    
 
  
 
     
.
 
B.
 
Example 2
  
.
 
The system prints the following parsing :

:
  
 
        
.

 : 
      
. 

: 
       
.
C.
 
Example 3
  
.The system prints the following parsing :

 : 
        
. 

 :
      
. 

: 
      
 . 
D.
 
Example 4
  
.The system prints the following parsing :

:
      
. 

:
     
 . 

:
     
 .
 
E.
 
Example 5
   
 .
 
The system prints the following parsing :
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 3, March 201160 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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