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Analysis and Comparison of Medical Image Fusion Techniques: Wavelet based Transform and Contourlet based Transform

Analysis and Comparison of Medical Image Fusion Techniques: Wavelet based Transform and Contourlet based Transform

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Medical Image Fusion provides additional information for diagnosis when a registered and overlaid multiple patient images. Multiple images from the same imaging modality or multiple modalities can be used to create a fused image. The fused image is of immense help and provides more information to the doctor so as to diagnose the diseases. The CT (Computer Tomography) offers less detailed information for soft tissues and good information on bony structures. But the MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) provides a more detailed information on the soft tissues but less detailed information on bone structures and the contrast resolution of soft tissues is far better in MRI than in CT. In this paper, Wavelet based Transform like DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform) and CWT (Complex Wavelet Transform) is analyzed theoretically and it is compared with Contourlet based Transform like CCT (Complex Contourlet Transform) and NSCT (No-Subsampled Contourlet Transform). The experimental results showing the evaluation measures like IE (Information Entrophy) , AG (Average Gradient) and SD (Standard Deviation).
Medical Image Fusion provides additional information for diagnosis when a registered and overlaid multiple patient images. Multiple images from the same imaging modality or multiple modalities can be used to create a fused image. The fused image is of immense help and provides more information to the doctor so as to diagnose the diseases. The CT (Computer Tomography) offers less detailed information for soft tissues and good information on bony structures. But the MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) provides a more detailed information on the soft tissues but less detailed information on bone structures and the contrast resolution of soft tissues is far better in MRI than in CT. In this paper, Wavelet based Transform like DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform) and CWT (Complex Wavelet Transform) is analyzed theoretically and it is compared with Contourlet based Transform like CCT (Complex Contourlet Transform) and NSCT (No-Subsampled Contourlet Transform). The experimental results showing the evaluation measures like IE (Information Entrophy) , AG (Average Gradient) and SD (Standard Deviation).

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Analysisand Comparison of Medical Image FusionTechniques: Wavelet based Transform andContourlet based Transform
C G Ravichandran,
RVS College of Engg. & Tech, Dindigul
, e-mail:
cg_ravi@yahoo.com
R. Rubesh Selvakumar,
Research Scholar, Anna University of Technology,Tricirappalli
,
e-mail:
gopikarubesh2009@rediffmail.com
S. Goutham,
Surya Engineering College,Erodee-mail:
gouthamsanjay00@gmail.com
AbstractMedical Image Fusion provides additional informationfor diagnosis when a registered and overlaid multiple patient images.Multiple images from the same imaging modality or multiplemodalities can be used to create a fused image. The fused image isof immense help and provide more information to the doctor so as todiagnose the diseases. the CT (Computer Tomography) offers lessdetailed information for soft tissues and good information on bonystructures. But the MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) provides amore detailed information on the soft tissues but less detailedinformation on bone structures and the contrast resolution of softtissues is far better in MRI than in CT. In this paper, Wavelet basedTransform like DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform)and CWT(Complex Wavelet Transform) is analyzed theoretically and it iscompared with Contourlet based Transform like CCT (ComplexContourlet Transform) and NSCT (No-Subsampled ContourletTransform). The experimental results showing the evaluationmeasures like IE (Information Entrophy) , AG (Average Gradient)and SD (Standard Deviation).Key Terms: CT (Computer Tomography), MRI (Magnetic ResonanceImaging), DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform), CWT (ComplexWavelet Transform), CCT (Complex Contourlet Transform), NSCT(No-Subsampled Contourlet Transform).
I.INTRODUCTION
The process of combining relevant information from two or more imagesinto a single image is known as Image Fusion. The fused image containsmore informations than any one of the input images. Ariel and SatelliteImaging, Robot Vision, Remote Sensing and Medical Imaging are someof the available image fusions. Nowadays, Medical Image Fusionoccupies a position of considerable importance in the field of medicalimage clinical diagnosis. The Medical Image Fusion objectives is toobtain a high resolution image replete with many details for the sake of diagnosis.Several of various medical modalities images information that arecomprehended together to form one image in order to express itsinformationcomprises Medical Image Fusion. As a result, the doctor is provided with a more effective diagnosis information by this image. X-Ray, Ultra Sound(US), (PET) Scans (Positron Emission Tomography)and (SPECT) Scans (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) ,CT(Computer Tomography) and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging( arethe various modality Images, that are in use for clinical analysis andtreatment. The single modality image cannot often give complete andaccurate information for this doctor since the formation principles of various systems differ from each other. The CT and MRI are the mostcommonly used image fusion because the CT image very clearly portraysthe human body bone tissues. The MRI image brings out the signals of  bone tissues and calcific point is weaker but the resolution of soft tissuesis much better than CT. Both CT and MRI images are fused and they cancompleter the merits.[1].Many new algorithms of Medical Image Fusions have been developed inthe formation of two approaches since the 80’s of 20
th
century namelySpatial Domain and Transform Domain. Averaging method, Broveymethod, Principle Component Analysis(PCA) andintensity-hue-saturation(IHS) are some of the Spatial oriented Techniques. All the algorithms inthese techniques have the drawback of spatial distortion in the fusedimage. When we move on to further processing such as classification problemical distortion, the spatial distortion becomes a negative factor.[2]But the multi-resolution tool which was initiated by burt and adelson in1983 can overcome these drawbacks and it is known as LapcianPyramid.[3] In continuous Function in all types of Pyramid based methodsis in-proper and the decomposes process is very poor. The WaveletTransform (WT) as multi-resolution established by Mallrt and Meyar for continuos function process good frequency division characteristics in thetransform region and this has rewulted in its wide use in the medicalimage fusion.[4]Though Wavelet based Transform solves the problems of low contrast and blocking effects in space domain and avoid artifacts,
they fail to achievegood performance. All types of wavelet based transform providein-sufficient information like curve shape and edge representationand also occurs the problems of shift in-variance and lack of directional selectivity. Then the need for a new approach aroseMuh D. Do and Vetterlin in 2002 proposed a new approach :contourlet Transform” known as multi-geometric Analysis.[5]. Ithappens to be a some powerful and useful tool for analyzing thesignals consisting of lines, curves and edges than wavelettransform. Its application to image fusion can provide sufficient
information to the doctor for diagnosis purposes. Several methods of contourlet transform such as Discrete ContourletTransform(DCT),Complex Contourlet Transfor(CCT) etc. These types of algorithmsconsists of some problesm such as lack of shift in-variance anddirectional selectivity. To overcome these problem prof. Cunha and Shunwas proposed the Non-Subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT).
II WAVELET TRANSFORM
In order to identify the vital details in the image the registered image isapplied by the transform in general concept of transform domain fusion. .First any fusion rule is applied to the transform co-efficientand then
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 3, March 201170http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
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obtained to the fusion decision map, then applied to the decision map bythe transform domain. Finally, the resulted image will have more detailsof both the source images.[6].
Registered TransformImage co-efficients
Fig. 1. Block diagram of Transform domain image fusionThe main concept and theory of wavelet based multi-resolution isdelivered from mallrt. It can detect local features in a signal process and itsi used to decompose process. Besides texture analysis, data compressionand feature detection, it can also be used for image fusion. Even beforewavelet based transform, the pyramid base transform was introduced byBurt and Adelson in 1983 and then it was improvised by Toet [7].But inthese type of techniques are not supported to continuous function. So thewavelet technique is applied to the image fusion.In common , all types of transform domain fusion techniques , thetransformed image are combined in the transform domain using any of thefusion rule, it is denoted by
of the registered input images I
1
(x,y) and I
2
(x,y) together with the fusion rule φ then the inverse wavelet transform W
-1
is applied and the fused image I (x,y) is reconstructed.[8]
I(x,y) = w
-1
(Φ(w(I
1
(x,y)), w(I
2
(x,y))))………………(1)w
-1
Registered wavelet fused wavelet FusedimageInput Images coefficients coefficients ImagesFig.2. Fusion of the Wavelet Transform of two images
III DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM
The mainidea of all multi-resolution schemes centers around the humanvital system being local contrast ie., edges or corners. Two registeredimages of the same scene each of the coefficients of each transform possess significantly different magnitudes within the regionUsing anyone of the fusion rule to generate the combined coefficients map then theinverse DWT is applied to the combined coefficients map to produce thefused image which is give the more information of than the input images.Using separate Filter and down-sampling in the horizontal and verticaldirections produces four subbands at each scale. It denotes the horizontalfrequency and then the vertical frequency. This produces high-high(HH),high-low(HL), los-high(LH) and low-low(LL) image subbands.[9] Byrecursively applying the same scheme to the low-low subband a multi-resolution decomposes process can be achieved.(Fig.3)Fig.3. Labelled subbandsFusion Rules: there are three fusion rulesthatwere developed andimplemented using DWT based image fusion.
1.
maximum selection (MS) scheme:
This simple scheme just picks the coefficient in each subband with the largestmagnitude;
2.
weighted average (WA) scheme:
This scheme developed byBurt and Kolczynski [10] uses a normalised correlation between the two images’ subbands over a small local area. Theresultant coefficient for reconstruction is calculated from thismeasure via a weighted average of the two images’coefficients.
3.
window based verification (WBV) scheme:
This schemedeveloped by Li
et al.
creates a binary decision map to choose between each pair of coefficients using a majority filter.In DWT fits most commonly into the decimated form(Mallats DyadicFilter Tree0[11]. It is only used for compression but other occus in other signal analysis such as lack of shift in-variance. Sice the wavelet fitnessare separable, the small shift in the input signal can cause major variationsin the energy distribution between DWT coefficients at different scalesand poor directional selectivity for diagonal features. So the new approachwas introduced to shift in-variance tha is known as Complex Wavelet.However, the real valued wavelet transform suffers from shift varianceand lack of directional selectivity.
 Nikolov et al.
[12] introduced the use of the dual tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) for image fusion. TheDT-CWT is approximately shift invariant and has double the amount of directional selectivity compared to a real valued wavelet transform. Shiftinvariance is an important feature of a fusion transform as the magnitudeof the coefficients of a shift variant transform may not properly reflecttheir importance. The improved directional selectivity of the DT-CWT isalso important in order to properly reflect the content of the images across boundaries and other important directional features. In DT-CWT givesmuch better directional selectivity when multi-dimensional signalisfiltered.[10].
IV. DUAL-TREE COMPLEX WAVELET TRANSFORM
The motivation of suing the DT-CWT for image fusion is, reduced theshift in-variance and directional selectivity when compared with theDWT. In DT-DWT comprising two trees of real filter a and b, which produce the real and imaginary parts of the complex coefficients and oddand even length bi-orthogonal linear phase filters.
Fusiondecision map
FusionTransformco-efficent
FusedImage
I
1
I
2
 
LH1 HH1LH2 HH2LH3 HH3 HL1
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 3, March 201171http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
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Figure 4: Dual tree of real filters for the
CWT,
giving real andimaginary parts
of 
complex coefficients
Unfortunally , the odd/even length filter approach suffers from certain problems [13] such as a. sub-sampling structures is not very symmetrical b. two trees have slightly different property response and c. the filter setsmust be bi-orthogonal. To overcome this problem the same author N. G.Kingbury slightly modified the existing algorithm toa developed onewhich is Q-Shift DT-CWT for image fusion.[13,14]
(a)MRI Image (b) CT Image
(c ) Fused Image –DWT (d) Fused Image-CT-CWTFig. 5(a,b,c) Input and Output Images
QUANTITATIVE COMPARISONS
Under the circumstances, comparisons of quantitative quality tends to bemisleading or meaningless. But a few authors have tried to formulate suchmeasures for applications with clear meaning. This is produced using asimple cut-and-paste technique, physically taking the “in focus” areasfrom each image and combining them. The quantitative measure used tocompare the cut-and-paste image to each fused image was taken fromwhere Igt is the cut-and-paste “ground truth” image, fd is the fused imageand N is the size of the image. Lower values of _ indicate greater similarity between the images Igt and Ifd and therefore more successfulfusion in terms of quantitatively measurable similarity. Table 1. shows theresults for the various methods with several fusion rules are used.S.No.Methods1.DWT-MS Fusion Rule8.29642.DWT-WA Fusion Rule7.65513.DWT-WBV Fusion Rule7.52714.DT-CWT-MS Fusion Rule7.22845.DT-CWT-WA Fusion Rule7.20436.DT-CWT-WBV Fusion Rule6.9540Table 1. Quantitative results for various fusion methodsThere arised some problems in all wavelets based transforms such as theaccuracy of edgeand curve localization in the wavelet transform is lowand it has paved the way for an alternative approach which has a highaccuracy of curve localization suchas the contourlet transformThe firstMGA tool was proposed by muh D. Do and Martin Vetterli in 2002[15].The main idea of this method is to construct a multiresolution andmultidirection (MRMD) decomposed representation of image and also itis more powerful tool for the analysis of the signals consists of lines,curves and edges than wavelet transform. It applied to image fusion, can provide more information to the doctor for diagnosis purposes. [16].Thereare several methods in MGA such as discrete contourlet transform ,complex contourlet transform. These transform ae lack of shiftinvariance,to overcome this problem Prof. cunha and zhna was proposednon-subsampled contourlet transform(NSCT). It is a fully shift invariant ,multiscale and multidirectional transformation. [17] In this paper, we present the comparative and evaluative study of these three contourlettransform.
V. DISCRETE CONTOURLET TRANSFORM
The Contourlet Transform is a new geometrical image transform , whichrepresents image formation containing contours and textures. The propertyof contourlet is directionality and anisotropy, first contourlet transformwas introduced by Do and Vetterli.A morepowerful MSMD framework isContourlet Transform,that consists of Laplacian Pyramid(LP) andDirectional Filter Bank(DFB). The LP decomposes on image intosubbands and DFB is an analysis of each digital image.Fig 6. A Flow graph of the Contourlet TransformFor the Contourlet Transform , first a standard multiscale decompositioninto different bands is computed, where the lowpass channel is subbandledwhile highpass is not. Then a directional decomposition with a DFB isapplied to each highpass channel. The DFB is a critically sampled filter  bank that can decompose on images of directions. So, one can decomposeeach scale into any arbitrary power of two’s number of directions. Beforecontourlet decomposition,registration of the input images must be done.There are three basic steps for the proposed contourlet based imagefusion are, 1. The input Images A and B to be decomposed usingdecompose images into lowpass coefficients and bandpass coefficients . 2.To combine the transform coefficients based on two types of way, one isfusion rules based on pixel and fusion rule based on Region. And 3.Finally, using contourlet transform to construct the fused images.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 3, March 201172http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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