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Mining Fuzzy Cyclic Patterns

Mining Fuzzy Cyclic Patterns

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Published by ijcsis
The problem of mining temporal association rules from temporal dataset is to find association between items that hold within certain time intervals but not throughout the dataset. This involves finding frequent sets that are frequent at certain time intervals and then association rules among the items present in the frequent sets. In fuzzy temporal datasets as the time of transaction is imprecise, we may find set of items that are frequent in certain fuzzy time intervals. We call these as fuzzy locally frequent sets and the corresponding associated association rules as fuzzy local association rules. The algorithm discussed [5] finds all fuzzy locally frequent itemsets where each frequent item set is associated with a list of fuzzy time intervals where it is frequent. The list of fuzzy time intervals may exhibit some interesting properties e.g. the itemsets may be cyclic in nature. In this paper we propose a method of finding such cyclic frequent itemsets.
The problem of mining temporal association rules from temporal dataset is to find association between items that hold within certain time intervals but not throughout the dataset. This involves finding frequent sets that are frequent at certain time intervals and then association rules among the items present in the frequent sets. In fuzzy temporal datasets as the time of transaction is imprecise, we may find set of items that are frequent in certain fuzzy time intervals. We call these as fuzzy locally frequent sets and the corresponding associated association rules as fuzzy local association rules. The algorithm discussed [5] finds all fuzzy locally frequent itemsets where each frequent item set is associated with a list of fuzzy time intervals where it is frequent. The list of fuzzy time intervals may exhibit some interesting properties e.g. the itemsets may be cyclic in nature. In this paper we propose a method of finding such cyclic frequent itemsets.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No.
3
, March 2011
Mining Fuzzy Cyclic Patterns
F. A. Mazarbhuiya M. A. Khaleel P. R. Khan
Department of Computer Science Department of Computer Science Department of Computer ScienceCollege of Computer Science College of Computer Science College of Computer ScienceKing Khalid University King Khalid University King Khalid UniversityAbha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabiae-mail: fokrul_2005@yahoo.com e-mail: khaleel_dm@yahoo.com e-mail: drpervaizrkhan@yahoo.com
 
Abstract
— The problem of mining temporal association rulesfrom temporal dataset is to find association between items thathold within certain time intervals but not throughout the dataset.This involves finding frequent sets that are frequent at certaintime intervals and then association rules among the items presentin the frequent sets. In fuzzy temporal datasets as the time of transaction is imprecise, we may find set of items that arefrequent in certain fuzzy time intervals. We call these as fuzzylocally frequent sets and the corresponding associated associationrules as fuzzy local association rules. The algorithm discussed [5]finds all fuzzy locally frequent itemsets where each frequent itemset is associated with a list of fuzzy time intervals where it isfrequent. The list of fuzzy time intervals may exhibit someinteresting properties e.g. the itemsets may be cyclic in nature. Inthis paper we propose a method of finding such cyclic frequentitemsets.
Keywords-
 
Fuzzy time-stamp, Fuzzy time interval, Fuzzytemporal datasets, Fuzzy locally frequent sets, Fuzzy distance,Variance of a fuzzy interval 
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 The problem of mining association rules has been definedinitially [10] by R. Agarwal
et al
for application in large supermarkets. Large supermarkets have large collection of records of daily sales. Analyzing the buying patterns of the buyers willhelp in taking typical business decisions such as what to put onsale, how to put the materials on the shelves, how to plan forfuture purchase etc.Mining for association rules between items in temporaldatabases has been described as an important data-miningproblem. Transaction data are normally temporal. The marketbasket transaction is an example of this type.Mining fuzzy temporal dataset is also an interesting datamining problem. In [5], author proposed a method of findingfuzzy locally frequent sets from such datasets. The algorithmdiscussed in [5] extracts all frequent itemsets along with a setof list of fuzzy time intervals where each frequent itemset isassociated a list of fuzzy time intervals. The list of fuzzy timeintervals associated with a frequent itemsets can be used to findsome interesting results. In this paper we propose to study theproblem of cyclic nature of a list of time intervals associatedwith a frequent itemset and devise a method to extract allfrequent itemsets which are cyclic. We call such frequentitemset as fuzzy cyclic frequent itemsets as the time intervalsare fuzzy in nature. In such case, as the variance of the fuzzyintervals is invariant with respect to translation, it can be usedto define the similarity between fuzzy time intervals associatedwith a frequent itemsets. Similarly, fuzzy distance between anytwo consecutive fuzzy time intervals associated with a frequentitemset can be used to find the fuzzy time gaps between thefuzzy time intervals and its variance can be used to definesimilarity among fuzzy time gaps associated with the frequentitemsets.In section II we give a brief discussion on the works relatedto our work. In section III we describe the definitions, termsand notations used in this paper. In section IV, we give thealgorithm proposed in this paper for mining fuzzy locallyfrequent sets. We conclude with conclusion and lines for futurework in section V. In the last section we give some references.II.
 
R
ELATED WORKS
 The problem of discovery of association rules was firstformulated by Agrawal
et al
in 1993. Given a set
, of itemsand a large collection
D
of transactions involving the items,the problem is to find relationships among the items i.e. thepresence of various items in the transactions. A transaction
is said to support an item if that item is present in
. Atransaction
is said to support an itemset if 
supports eachof the items present in the itemset. An association rule isan expression of the form
 
 
where
and
are subsetsof the itemset
. The rule holds with confidence
τ
if 
τ
% of the transaction in
D
that supports
also supports
. Therule has support
σ
if 
σ
% of the transactions supports
 
 
.A method for the discovery of association rules was givenin [9], which is known as the A priori algorithm. This wasthen followed by subsequent refinements, generalizations,extensions and improvements.Temporal Data Mining is now an important extensionof conventional data mining and has recently been able toattract more people to work in this area. By taking intoaccount the time aspect, more interesting patterns that aretime dependent can be extracted. There are mainly twobroad directions of temporal data mining [6]. One concernsthe discovery of causal relationships among temporallyoriented events. Ordered events form sequences and thecause of an event always occur before it. The otherconcerns the discovery of similar patterns within the sametime sequence or among different time sequences. Theunderlying problem is to find frequent sequential patternsin the temporal databases. The name sequence mining isnormally used for the underlying problem. In [7] the
95 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No.
3
, March 2011
problem of recognizing frequent episodes in an eventsequence is discussed where an episode is defined as acollection of events that occur during time intervals of aspecific size.The association rule discovery process is also extendedto incorporate temporal aspects. In temporal associationrules each rule has associated with it a time interval inwhich the rule holds. The problems associated are to findvalid time periods during which association rules hold, thediscovery of possible periodicities that association ruleshave and the discovery of association rules with temporalfeatures. In [8], [14], [15] and [16], the problem of temporal data mining is addressed and techniques andalgorithms have been developed for this. In [8] analgorithm for the discovery of temporal association rules isdescribed. In [2], two algorithms are proposed for thediscovery of temporal rules that display regular cyclicvariations where the time interval is specified by user todivide the data into disjoint segments like months, weeks,days etc. Similar works were done in [4] and [17]incorporating multiple granularities of time intervals (e.g.first working day of every month) from which both cyclicand user defined calendar patterns can be achieved. In [1],the method of finding locally and periodically frequent setsand periodic association rules are discussed which is animprovement of other methods in the sense that itdynamically extracts all the rules along with the intervalswhere the rules hold. In ([18], [19]) fuzzy calendric datamining and fuzzy temporal data mining is discussed whereuser specified ill-defined fuzzy temporal and calendricpatterns are extracted from temporal data.In [5], the authors propose a method of extractingfuzzy locally frequent sets from fuzzy temporal datasets.The algorithm discussed in [5], extracts all frequentitemsets with each itemset is associated with a list fuzzytime intervals where the itemset is frequent. The list fuzzytime intervals associated with a frequent itemset exhibitssome interesting properties e.g. the size of the fuzzy timeintervals may be almost same and also the time gapbetween two consecutive fuzzy time intervals is also almostsame. We call such frequent itemset as a fuzzy cyclicfrequent itemset. So the study is basically an intra-itemsetstudy.III.
 
PROBLEM
 
DEFINITION
 
A. Some Definition related to Fuzzy sets
Let
be the universe of discourse. A fuzzy set
A
in
ischaracterized by a membership function
A
(
x
) lying in [0,1].
A
(
x
) for
x
 
 
represents the grade of membership of x in
A
.Thus a fuzzy set
A
is defined as
A
={(
x
,
A(x
)),
x
 
 
}A fuzzy set
A
is said to be normal if 
A
(
x
)
=
1
 
for at least one
x
In general, a generalized fuzzy number
A
is described asany fuzzy subset of the real line
R
, whose membership function
A
(
x
) satisfying the following conditions(1)
 
A
(
x
) is continuous mapping from
R
to the closedinterval [0, 1](2)
 
A
(
x
)=0, -
∝<
 
x
 
 
c
 (3)
 
A
(
x
)=
L
(
x
) is strictly increasing on [
c
,
a
](4)
 
A
(
x
)=w,
a
 
 
x
 
 
b
 (5)
 
A
(
x
)=
R
(
x
) is strictly decreasing on [
b
,
](6)
 
A
(
x
)=0,
 
 
x
<∝
,where 0
<
w
1,
a
,
b
,
c
and
are real numbers. This type of generalized fuzzy number is denoted by A=(
c
,
a
,
b
,
; w)
LR.
When w=1, the above generalized fuzzy number will be afuzzy interval and is denoted by
A
=(
c
,
a
,
b
,
)
LR
. When
L
(
x
)and
R
(
x
) are straight line, then
A
is a trapezoidal fuzzy numberand is denoted by (
c
,
a
,
b
,
). If 
a
=
b
, then the above trapezoidalnumber will be a triangular fuzzy number denoted by (
c
,
a
,
).The
h
-level of the fuzzy number [
1
-a, t 
1
,
1
+a
] is a closedinterval [
1
+
(
α 
-
1)
.a, t 
1
+
(1
-
α 
)
.a
]. Similarly the
h
-level of thefuzzy interval [
1
-a, t 
1
, t 
2
, t 
2
+a
] is a closed interval [
1
+
(
α 
-
1)
.a,
2
+
(1
-
α 
)
.a
].
Chen
and
Hsieh
[11, 12, 13] proposed graded mean integrationrepresentation for generalized fuzzy number as follows:Suppose
L
-1
and
R
-1
are inverse functions of the functions
L
and
R
respectively and the graded mean
h
-level value of generalized fuzzy number
A
=(
c
,
a
,
b
,
; w)
LR
is
h
[
L
-1
(
h
)+
R
-1
(
h
)]/2. Then the graded mean integration representation of generalized fuzzy number based on the integral value of gradedmean
h
-levels isP(
A
)=
hdhdhh
whRhL w
∫ ∫ 
+
02)()( 0
)(
11
 where
h
is between 0 and w, 0<w
1.
B. Fuzzy distanceChen
and
Wang
[13] proposed fuzzy distance between any twotrapezoidal fuzzy numbers as follows: Let
A
=(
a
1
,
a
2
,
a
3
,
a
4
),
B
=(
b
1
,
b
2
,
b
3
,
b
4
) be two trapezoidal fuzzy numbers, and theirgraded mean integration representation are P(
A
), P(
B
)respectively. Assume
s
i
=(
a
i
-P(
A
)+
b
i
-P(
B
))/2, i=1, 2, 3, 4;
c
i
=
P(
A
)-P(
B
)
+
s
i
, i=1, 2, 3, 4;then the fuzzy distance of 
A
,
B
is
=(
c
1
,
c
2
,
c
3
,
c
4
). Obviouslythe fuzzy distance between two trapezoidal numbers is also atrapezoidal number.
C. Possibilistic variance of a fuzzy number 
Let
be a family of fuzzy number and
A
be a fuzzy numberbelonging to
. Let
A
γ 
 
=[a
1
(
γ 
), a
2
(
γ 
)],
γ∈
[0, 1] be a
γ 
-level of 
96 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No.
3
, March 2011
A
.
Carlsson
and
Fuller 
[3] defined the possibilistic variance of fuzzy number
A
asVar(
A
) =
γ  γ  γ  γ  
aa
2121021
))()((
∫ 
 Before proceeding further we review the theorem given by
Carlsson
and
Fuller 
[3].
D. Theorem:
 
The variance of a fuzzy number is invariant toshifting.Proof: Let
A
 
be a fuzzy number and let
θ 
be a real number.If 
A
is shifted by value
θ 
, then we get a fuzzy number, denotedby
B,
satisfying the property
B
(
x
)=
A
(
x
-
θ 
) for all
x
 
R
. Thenfrom the relationship
B
γ 
=[a
1
(
γ 
)+
θ 
, a
2
(
γ 
)+
θ 
]we findVar(
B
)=
γ  θ γ  θ γ  γ  
aa
2121021
)))(())(((
++
∫ 
 =
γ  γ  γ  γ  
aa
2121021
))()((
∫ 
 =Var(
A
)
E. Almost equal fuzzy intervals
Given two fuzzy intervals
A
and
B
, we say
A
is almost equal
B
 or
B
is almost equal to
A
if the variances of both
A
and
B
areequal up to a small variation say
λ 
%. i.e.var(
A
)+
λ 
% of var(
B
)=var(
B
)var(
B
)+
λ 
% of var(
A
)=var(
A
)where
λ 
is specified by the user.IV.
 
PROPOSED ALGORITHM
 
A.
Extraction of fuzzy cyclic patterns
 One way to extract these sets is to find the fuzzy distancebetween any two consecutive fuzzy time intervals of the samefrequent set. If the fuzzy distance (time gap) between any twoconsecutive frequent time intervals are found to be
almost equal
and also the fuzzy time intervals are found to be
almost equal
(the definition of 
almost equal
fuzzy time interval isgiven in
Definition E 
of 
section III 
) then we call these frequentsets as fuzzy cyclic frequent sets. Now to find out such type of cyclic nature for each frequent item set we proceed as follows.If the first fuzzy time interval is
almost equal
to the secondfuzzy time interval then we see whether the fuzzy distance(time gap) between the first and the second fuzzy time intervalis
almost equal
to the fuzzy distance (time gap) between thesecond and third fuzzy time intervals. If it is, then we take theaverage of the variance of the first two fuzzy distances (timegaps) and see whether it is almost equal to the variance of thefuzzy distance (time gap) between the third and the fourthfuzzy time intervals. If the average of the variance of the firsttwo fuzzy time intervals is
almost equal
with the variance of the third interval we proceed further or otherwise stop. Ingeneral if the average of the variance of the first (
n
-1) fuzzytime intervals is almost equal to the variance of the
n
-th fuzzytime interval and the average of variance of first (
n
-2) fuzzydistances (time gaps) are almost equal to the
n
-1 th time gap,then the average of variances of 
n
fuzzy time intervals iscompared with variance of (
n
+1)th fuzzy time interval and thatof the first
n
-1 time gaps is compared with the
n
th time gap.This way we can extract fuzzy cyclic patterns if such patternsexist. We describe below the algorithm for extracting periodicitem sets.
Algorithm for extracting fuzzy cyclic frequent item sets
 For each fuzzy locally frequent item set 
iset
do{ t1
 
first fuzzy time interval for 
iset
 v1
 
var(t1)t2
 
second fuzzy time interval for 
iset
 v2
 
var( t2)if not almostequal(v1, v2,sgma) then{ report that 
iset
is not fuzzy cyclic in naturecontinue /* go for the next frequent item set */ }n=1ftg
1
 
 
fuzzydist(t1,t2)v(ftg
1
)
 
var(fuzzydist(t1,t2))avgvar 
 
(v1 +v2)/2flag = 0while not end of fuzzy interval list for 
iset
do{ tint 
 
current fuzzy time intervalftg
 
fuzzydist(tint, t2)v(ftg)
 
var(fuzzydist(tint, t2))if almostequal(v(ftg),v(ftg
1
), sgma) thenavv(gftg)
 
(n*v(ftg
1
) +v(ftg))/(n+1)else{ flag = 1; break;}var 
 
var(tint)if almostequal(var, avgvar, sgma) thenavgvar 
 
((n+1)*avgvar +var) /(n+2)else
97 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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